Sunday, October 20, 2019

Life and Travels of Ibn Battuta, World Explorer and Writer

Life and Travels of Ibn Battuta, World Explorer and Writer Ibn Battuta (1304–1368) was a scholar, theologian, adventurer, and traveler who, like Marco Polo fifty years earlier, wandered the world and wrote about it. Battuta sailed, rode camels and horses, and walked his way to 44 different modern countries, traveling an estimated 75,000 miles during a 29 year period. He journeyed from North Africa to the Middle East and Western Asia, Africa, India and Southeast Asia. Fast Facts: Ibn Battuta Name: Ibn BattutaKnown For: His travel writing, which described the 75,000-mile journey he took during his rilha.Born: February 24, 1304, Tangier, MoroccoDied: 1368 in Morocco  Education: Schooled in the Maliki tradition of Islamic lawPublished Works: A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling or The Travels (1368 Early Years Ibn Battuta (sometimes spelled Batuta, Batouta, or Battutah) was born in Tangier, Morocco on February 24, 1304. He was from a fairly well-to-do family of Islamic legal scholars descended from Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to Morocco. A Sunni Muslim trained in the Maliki tradition of Islamic law, Ibn Battuta left his home at the age of 22 to begin his rihla, or voyage. Rihla is one of four forms of travel encouraged by Islam, the best known of which is Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. The term rihla refers to both the travel and the genre of literature that describes the journey. The purpose of rihla is to enlighten and entertain readers with detailed descriptions of pious institutions, public monuments and religious personalities of Islam. Ibn Battutas travelogue was written after he returned, and in it he stretched the conventions of the genre, including autobiography as well as some fictional elements from the adjaib or marvels traditions of Islamic literature.   The first seven years of Ibn Battutas Travels took him to Alexandria, Mecca, Medina, and Kilwa Kiswani.   Wikipedia Users Setting Off Ibn Battutas journey began from Tangier on June 14, 1325. Originally intending to make a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, by the time he reached Alexandria in Egypt, where the lighthouse was still standing, he found himself entranced by the people and cultures of Islam.   He headed for Iraq, Western Persia, then Yemen and the Swahili coast of East Africa. By 1332 he reached Syria and Asia Minor, crossed the Black Sea and reached the territory of the Golden Horde. He visited the steppe region along the Silk Road and arrived at the oasis of Khwarizm in western central Asia.   Then he traveled through Transoxania and Afghanistan, arriving in the Indus Valley by 1335. He stayed in Delhi until 1342 and then visited Sumatra and (perhaps- the record is unclear) China before heading home. His return trip took him back through Sumatra, the Persian Gulf, Baghdad, Syria, Egypt, and Tunis. He reached Damascus in 1348, just in time for the arrival of the plague, and returned home to Tangier safe and sound in 1349. Afterwards, he made minor excursions to Granada and the Sahara, as well as to the West African kingdom of Mali. A Few Adventures Ibn Battuta was mostly interested in people. He met and talked with pearl divers and camel drivers and brigands. His traveling companions were pilgrims, merchants, and ambassadors. He visited countless courts. Ibn Battuta lived on donations from his patrons, mostly elite members of Muslim society he met along the way. But he was not just a traveler- he was an active participant, often employed as a judge (qadi), administrator, and/or ambassador during his stops. Battuta took a number of well-placed wives, generally daughters and sisters of the sultans, none of whom are named in the text.   Ibn Battuta is thought to have reached Asia.   Wikimedia Users Visiting Royalty Battuta met countless royals and elites. He was in Cairo during the reign of the Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun. He visited Shiraz when it was an intellectual haven for Iranians fleeing the Mongol invasion. He stayed in the Armenian capital of Staryj Krym with his host, the governor Tuluktumur. He detoured to Constantinople to visit Andronicus III in the company of the Byzantine emperor Ozbek Khans daughter. He visited the Yuan emperor in China, and he visited Mansa Musa (r. 1307–1337) in West Africa.   He spent eight years in India as a qadi in the court of Muhammad Tughluq, the Sultan of Delhi. In 1341, Tughluq appointed him to lead a diplomatic mission to the Mongol emperor of China. The expedition was shipwrecked off the coast of India leaving him with neither employment nor resources, so he traveled around southern India, Ceylon and the Maldive islands, where he served as qadi under the local Muslim government. History of the Literary Rilha In 1536, after Ibn Battuta returned home,  the Marinid ruler of Morocco Sultan Abu Ina commissioned a young literary scholar of Andalusian origins named Ibn Juzayy (or Ibn Djuzzayy) to record Ibn Battutas experiences and observations. Over the next two years together, the men wove what would become the Book of Travels, based primarily on Ibn Battutas memories, but also interweaving descriptions from earlier writers.   The manuscript was circulated around different Islamic countries, but not much cited by Muslim scholars. It eventually came to the attention of the west by way of two adventurers of the 18th and 19th centuries, Ulrich Jasper Seetzen (1767–1811) and Johan Ludwig Burckhardt (1784–1817). They had separately purchased abridged copies during their travels throughout the Mideast. The first English language translation of those copies was published in 1829 by Samuel Lee. Five manuscripts were found by the French when they conquered Algeria in 1830. The most complete copy recovered in Algiers was made in 1776, but the oldest fragment was dated 1356. That fragment had the title Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Traveling, and is believed to have been a very early copy indeed if not an original fragment.   The complete text of the travels, with  parallel Arabic and a French translation, first appeared in four volumes between 1853–1858 by Dufrà ©mery and Sanguinetti. The full text was translated first into English by Hamilton A.R. Gibb in 1929. Several subsequent translations are available today.   Criticism of the Travelogue Ibn Battuta recounted tales of his travels throughout his voyage and when he returned home, but it was not until his association with Ibn Jazayy that the stories were committed to formal writing. Battuta took notes during the journey but admitted that he lost some of them along the way. He was accused of lying by some contemporaries, though the veracity of those claims is widely disputed. Modern critics have noted several textual discrepancies which hint at substantial borrowing from older tales.   Much of the criticism of Battutas writing is aimed at the sometimes confusing chronology and plausibility of certain parts of the itinerary. Some critics suggest he may have never reached mainland China, but did get as far as Vietnam and Cambodia. Parts of the story were borrowed from earlier writers, some attributed, others not, such as Ibn Jubary and Abu al-Baqa Khalid al-Balawi. Those borrowed parts include descriptions of Alexandria, Cairo, Medina, and Mecca. Ibn Battuta and Ibn Juzayy acknowledge Ibn Jubayr in the descriptions of Aleppo and Damascus.   He also relied on original sources, relating historical events told to him in the courts of the world, such as the capture of Delhi and the devastations of Genghis Khan. Death and Legacy After his collaboration with Ibn Jazayy ended, Ibn Batuta retired to a judicial post in a small Moroccan provincial town, where he died in 1368. Ibn Battuta has been called the greatest of all travel writers, having traveled farther than Marco Polo. In his work, he provided priceless glimpses of the various people, courts and religious monuments around the world. His travelogue has been the source of countless research projects and historical investigations. Even if some of the stories were borrowed, and some of the tales a bit too marvelous to be believed, Ibn Battutas rilha remains an enlightening and influential work of travel literature to this day. Sources Battuta, Ibn, Ibn Juzayy, and Hamilton A.R. Gibb. Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354. London: Broadway House, 1929. Print.Berman, Nina. Questions of Context: Ibn Battuta and E. W. Bovill on Africa. Research in African Literatures 34.2 (2003): 199-205. Print.Gulati, G. D. Ibn Battuta in Transoxiana. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress 58 (1997): 772-78. Print.Lee, Samuel. The Travels of Ibn Batuta Translated from the Abridged Arabic Manuscript Copies. London: Oriental Translation Committee, 1829. Print.Morgan, D. O. Battuta and the Mongols. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 11.1 (2001): 1-11. Print.Norris, Harry. Ibn Battuta on Muslims and Christians in the Crimean Peninsula. Iran the Caucasus 8.1 (2004): 7-14. Print.Waines, David. The Odyssey of Ibn Battuta: Uncommon Tales of a Medieval Adventurer. London: I.B. Tauris Cp, Ltd, 2010. Print.Zimonyi, Istvn. Ibn Battuta on the First Wife of Ãâ€"zbek Khan. Central Asiatic Journal 49.2 (2005): 303-09. Print.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

International case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

International case - Essay Example Database management skills of the staff were weak and there were pressures to reduce costs. The system development process was complex and risk-prone. The focus of the new information system was to manage flow and water demand information. Data exchange between different stakeholders of the project was not fully automated as their information systems were not designed for data and information exchange among other stakeholder agencies. The implementation process of KOBWA happened at a time when roles were yet to be assigned to the new staff. The paper and spreadsheet based processes had to be shifted to computer-based systems gradually for ease of functions in the operations. Deficiency of staff also presented a hurdle in the implementation process. Manual processes were used for preparing regular reports on the water quality status as the graphical display routines designed for checking flow data could not be leveraged for examining water quality data. Map displays were also documented manually. A close connection between the water quality data and the GIS databases was desired for raising water quality status maps. Getting the data from field, DWAF, MNRE, and other data suppliers was again a manual process realized through spreadsheets or text export files from different agencies and transferring them into Hydstraâ„ ¢. There was good scope of committing errors due to non-automation of the processes; it needed many resources on checking data in the database. As manual processes required staff which was deficient, resources had to be employed for comprehending the reactionary change in the water quality with flow and long & short term routines. It could affect the standard and utility of the information as precious time got wasted in database maintenance and preparing status reports

Friday, October 18, 2019

See attach Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

See attach - Essay Example According to the play paragraph presented, the relation between the speaker and other people has been affected by his mentality or perception towards them. He sees other people as advantaged having compared his daily occurrences to theirs. According to his perception, his life occurrences are the worst compared to any other person. All these can be proven by the utterances in the last four sentences of the given play paragraph. The speaker in the last paragraph of the play admits that he cannot meet his full objective based on his personality and set to fake and try a new pattern. As per my perception, the speaker is very intelligent and trusts his personality. This can be proven by his words in the first three sentences that he is determined to prove villain since he cannot prove a lover in the fair well-spoken days (Wells, 32). The speaker is a hard working and determined person. His change of pattern shows that he is a character that can go to extreme to achieve his desire. This can be explained by his utterance in the seventh sentence of the given paragraph. In this sentence, the speaker plots to set his brother Clarence and the king in a deadly hate to prove villain (Wells, 32). Comparing the two lines of the play paragraphs, the speaker failed in accomplishing his life desire in the right path as those who chose the villain path succeed. This has brought a change in the speaker’s perception about his personality that he is set to abandon his personality achieve his desire. The soul reason is to prove villain and drive people back to reality. As per my perception, induction is always the best mode of logical thought though surrounded by minor setbacks (Wells, 34). Induction is a slow process that is based on reality while deduction is based on presumption that tends to drive people to the shortest way possible to achieve their life desire. According to the first paragraph, the

Research the development of endoxaban as well as the target and Essay

Research the development of endoxaban as well as the target and mechanism of action. Illustrate aspects of the discovery and development process that are relevant to endoxaban - Essay Example , however jus most recently in the January of 2015.1 In the USA, the drug has been approved both for the prevention of the systematic formation of blood clot in the non–central-nervous-system, as well as for the prevention of stroke1. The drug is currently approved for medical use in the treatment of the thrombosis of deep veins, as well as in the treatment of pulmonary embolism, after a period of 5 to 10 days therapy involving the application of a parenteral-based coagulant.3 The development of the Endoxaban oral drug started several years ago, but the first official request for investigation and approval by the Daiichi Sankyo company was made to the Ministry of Health in Japan in 6 April 2010.2 The investigation of the drug commenced and the approval of its commercial production and sale was approved in Japan by the Ministry of Health on 22 April 2011, making the drug a fully approved medication for the prevention of venous thromboembolisms (VTE).4 At the international level, the drug has undergone successful investigations, with the first clinical investigation being initiated towards the end of 2009, where a clinical study was undertaken usinig 21,000 patients in the USA, Europe and Japan.3 The second clinical trial was subsequently undertaken in Japan, followed by the third clinical investigations, all of which have demonstrated the efficacy and safety profile of oral Endoxaban when comparable to that of warfarin, which is the most common used antico agulant in the USA.4 The first clinical investigations of the drug, since the drug was first subjected to clinical investigations in 2009, has indicated that the drug has the acceptable profile of both safety and efficacy of use for medication.5 The second and the third phases of the clinical investigations have affirmed the safety and efficacy profiles of the oral Endoxaban, resulting in its approval for the medical use in the prevention of both venous clotting and stroke. Despite the fact that the Endoxaban

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The Parliamentary Contribution to Democracy Essay

The Parliamentary Contribution to Democracy - Essay Example Parliament is the essential and definitive link between the citizen and the government and should therefore be the cardinal institution of any nation's democratic system. Genuine representative democracy is possible only in a country with a strong Parliament. A strong Parliament ensures a good and accountable government endowed with a robust and sensitive law making mechanism. The citizens of a country have a say in the decisions that affect their lives only when a strong Parliament is in existence in that country. Over a period of time, Parliament's power to hold the Executive to account has been on the decline irrespective of the political character of the Government involved. Important legislation becomes law after being subjected to cursory investigation and this allows the entry of laws which have been poorly drafted and ill thought through. This has been the experience in the United Kingdom. The domination of the Legislature by the Executive has assumed great importance and it has been generally conceded that, the Executive dominates the Legislature and that any discussion in this regard concerns itself mainly with the level of this dominance. Such studies have in the main concentrated on the parliament's performance in the legislative process and there is a discernible neglect of other key functions of parliament such as scrutiny for example. The diminishing role of Parliament and the increasing power of the Executive in the British political system has been the subject of many discussions and a number of concrete remedies have been suggested by various authorities. Inter Alia, these authorities have frequently referred to a so called golden age when the balance between legislature and executive was more equitable. "The argument appears to start from a misinterpretation of what the role of Parliament has been in the past which is a question of description or what the role ought to be is a question of prescription. This lacks the evidence of past commentators, like Mill or Bagehot which always correctly interpreted. Indeed, the lessons of history itself are not infrequently misapplied"2 The Liaison Committee had submitted two reports, in order to clarify its views on the discussion taking place in respect of the relationship between Parliament and the Executive3, these reports are Shifting the balance: select committees and the executive, or the 1st report of 1999-2000, HC 300, March 20004 and Independence or control or the 2nd report of 1999-2000, HC 748, July 20005. Although the primary focus of the Committee's attention is the select committee system6, it addresses this in the overall context of the executive-parliamentary relations, as can be seen from its conclusions in the first report. These conclusions state that twenty years have elapsed since the setting up of the departmental select committees and that their establishment was a major step in making the Executive accountable to Parliament, and ultimately to the citizen and the taxpayer. Although, these committees had done a lot of important work their full capability had been neither realized nor

Methods Section Report Rubric Lab Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Methods Section Rubric - Lab Report Example The water was added until the towels became saturated and could no longer hold additional water. The weight of the saturated paper towels was also weighed and recorded. The weight of water held by the paper towels was determined by getting the difference between the weight of the wet and dry paper towels (Baxter, Shavelson, Goldman, and Pine4). This difference in weight was recorded for each type of paper towel. The procedure was repeated eight times for each type of paper towel to obtain nine replicates. The results were recorded in a table. A fully saturated paper towel of each type was used as positive control for each replicate to determine a standard level of saturation before taking weight measurements. The hypothesis was tested by getting the average and total amount of water held by each type of paper towel. The final results (average and totals) were then compared for the two types of paper towels. The type of paper towel that held the highest amount of water was regarded the most absorbent towel. Baxter, Gail P., Richard J. Shavelson, Susan R. Goldman, and Jerry Pine. "Evaluation of Procedure-Based Scoring for Hands-On Science Assessment." Journal of Educational Measurement 29.1 (1992): 1-17.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The Parliamentary Contribution to Democracy Essay

The Parliamentary Contribution to Democracy - Essay Example Parliament is the essential and definitive link between the citizen and the government and should therefore be the cardinal institution of any nation's democratic system. Genuine representative democracy is possible only in a country with a strong Parliament. A strong Parliament ensures a good and accountable government endowed with a robust and sensitive law making mechanism. The citizens of a country have a say in the decisions that affect their lives only when a strong Parliament is in existence in that country. Over a period of time, Parliament's power to hold the Executive to account has been on the decline irrespective of the political character of the Government involved. Important legislation becomes law after being subjected to cursory investigation and this allows the entry of laws which have been poorly drafted and ill thought through. This has been the experience in the United Kingdom. The domination of the Legislature by the Executive has assumed great importance and it has been generally conceded that, the Executive dominates the Legislature and that any discussion in this regard concerns itself mainly with the level of this dominance. Such studies have in the main concentrated on the parliament's performance in the legislative process and there is a discernible neglect of other key functions of parliament such as scrutiny for example. The diminishing role of Parliament and the increasing power of the Executive in the British political system has been the subject of many discussions and a number of concrete remedies have been suggested by various authorities. Inter Alia, these authorities have frequently referred to a so called golden age when the balance between legislature and executive was more equitable. "The argument appears to start from a misinterpretation of what the role of Parliament has been in the past which is a question of description or what the role ought to be is a question of prescription. This lacks the evidence of past commentators, like Mill or Bagehot which always correctly interpreted. Indeed, the lessons of history itself are not infrequently misapplied"2 The Liaison Committee had submitted two reports, in order to clarify its views on the discussion taking place in respect of the relationship between Parliament and the Executive3, these reports are Shifting the balance: select committees and the executive, or the 1st report of 1999-2000, HC 300, March 20004 and Independence or control or the 2nd report of 1999-2000, HC 748, July 20005. Although the primary focus of the Committee's attention is the select committee system6, it addresses this in the overall context of the executive-parliamentary relations, as can be seen from its conclusions in the first report. These conclusions state that twenty years have elapsed since the setting up of the departmental select committees and that their establishment was a major step in making the Executive accountable to Parliament, and ultimately to the citizen and the taxpayer. Although, these committees had done a lot of important work their full capability had been neither realized nor