Sunday, August 18, 2019

Steven Crane’s Maggie: A Girl of the Streets :: Maggie: A Girl Of The Streets

Maggie A Girl Of The Streets Maggie and Jimmie are two siblings being raised within the slums of New York City in the Stephen Crane novel; Maggie: A Girl of the Streets. The parents of these two are constantly fighting as broken furniture and fistfights are an everyday occurance in the decrepid family apartment. The mother and father fight while their children hide frightened as "There was a clash against the door and something broke into clattering fragments .... (Jimmie) heard howls and curses, groans and shrieks, confusingly in chorus as if a battle were raging" (11). Crane exxagerates the furniture destruction as every night when the two parents battle, seemingly all the furniture in the apartment is destroyed. Obviously, this poor family couldn't afford to fix and/or buy new furniture everyday. This then is the environment that Maggie and Jimmie struggle with throughout the novel, but both respond to in opposite ways. Maggie dreams of a better life than of her roots while Jimmie excepts his roots and becom es nihilistic. However, the hope of Maggie sadly goes unfulfilled. Maggie is introduced into the storyline quite subtle and quickly becomes the main focus of attention by the other three main characters. From the beginning, Maggie is a harsh contrast to the slum environment she has to endure. She "blossomed in a mud puddle ... a most rare and wonderful production of a tenement district, a pretty girl" (16) that not only had the physical beauty that her family seemed to lack, but also the hope that she could be better than what was around in her environment. Therefore, the slum environment that surrounds her contrasts her character greatly. "None of the dirt of Rum Alley was in her veins" (16) as she became the talk of numerous males in the neighborhood. Pete; an acquaintance of Jimmie, became Maggie's infatuation. They meet when Pete is called to the Johnson apartment by Jimmie after Pete promised to attend a boxing match with him. Although only a bartender, Maggie finds Pete as a man of "personal superiority" (17) that is capable of providing her with any dream she desires. She views the contrast between Pete and her environment when: The broken furniture, grimy walls, and general disorder and dirt of her home all of a sudden appeared before her and began to take a potential aspect. Pete's aristocratic person looked as if it might soil.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

My essay of mice and mMen Essay

In the novel Of Mice And Mice Lenny and George are on there travels to look for work but everything seems to go wrong Because Lenny can not control his anger or his strength and George is all ways there to get Lenny out of trouble but George treats Lenny like it his is own brother. The novel is set in Weed and it is very hard to find work and live a living so Lenny and George set them selves of to look for work Lenny on his journey who has a heart of gold would never hurt any one or hurt anything finds a mouse a dead mouse he wants t play and tamper with the mouse but George says no and grabs the mouse and throws the mouse into the bushes but then Lenny gets really upsets and starts crying and shouting out load all I want to do is tamper and play with the mouse because I like tampering animals George says â€Å". Never mind Lenny I will get you a puppy you can tamper and play with† no Lenny says I want a mouse ok then George says what about if we get a job on the farm you cam tamper some rabbits , can I can I said Lenny of course you can just as long as your good and don’t pick up dead mousse which might have dieses and we wont want you catching something. Has Lenny and George carry on with there journey there become hungry and they settle down by the river and they drink the water and then they start a fire and has Lenny collects wood for the fire George prepares the food. Or they have is beans which Lenny starts getting angry I only want beans with tomato ketchup if we have no ketchup I don’t want any but we don’t have none said George you will have to do with what we have ok , but I want ketchup , we have not got none so stop moaning. George starts getting mad with Lenny and says to Lenny † I bet you if I was on my own I would have a job and nice food but no I am stuck with you moaning all the time can I tamper the rabbits can I tamper the rabbits you just get on my nerves† Lenny gets upset and says â€Å"if you want me to go I will, I will go up in the mountains and find a cave and live in there I will be ok then I wont get on your nerves† no Lenny you will never survive with out me it is best if we stick together. There one more thing I have to tell you if you get in any trouble all I want you to do is to run to this bush here and hide till I come for you ok. Lenny and George carry on with there travels they come to a farm to have a interview for a job they get there and meet up with a man called Candy who is very old and needs very good looking after and takes them to the manager to see if there have the job. They get they job and Lenny and George are very excited but the only thing that keeps coming out of Lennys mouth is â€Å"now can I tend the rabbits† George says if you are good. The job they are given is to pick wheat bags up and stack them on to the carriage but they are very and it takes two men to lift one bag, but then every one is stunned to watch has Lenny picks up one bag all by himself but no one knows how strong Lenny is. George lets Lenny tend the rabbits but has Lenny is tending the rabbits in the barn the managers son Curly HE goes to work and Curly wife follows Lenny into the barn. She starts talking to Lenny telling him that she hates Curly and she hates working here and that she wants to become a Hollywood star and then she asks Lenny what hw would like to do he says have a big house for him and George and have there own business and also he would love to tend the rabbits. But has she was going to reply Curly walked in and says to Lenny â€Å"why are you not doing you work get out there and finish of your job† then George walks in â€Å"what’s happening† says George then Curly and his wife walks out. â€Å"Lenny if you have any trouble of him or any one you tell me† then they all get back to work. George gives Lenny a puppy for his hard work Lenny is very excited and goes in the barn on his own and starts tending the puppy and guess who walks in Curlys wife â€Å"sorry for my husbands behavior† I don’t want to talk to you says Lenny why says Curlys wife , George has told me to stay away from you we don’t want any trouble so go away, but im friendly I only want to make friends â€Å"no† says Lenny. She walks away but seconds later she comes back and then Curly walks in â€Å"I have told you hundreds of times to stay away from my wife† then George walks in again to see Curly hitting and arguing with Lenny, Lenny stays there and George shouts out â€Å"Lenny defend yourself and has Lennys face is pouring with blood and cut eyes half way closed Curly goes to punch him and curlys little hand is trapped between Lennys big hand and Lenny squeezes his hand and hurts Curly badly. Then Lennys says to George â€Å"can I still tend the puppy† â⠂¬Å"of course you can you did nothing wrong† says George. They are getting along with there lives fine carrying on with there work keeping them selves to them selves then Lenny asks George can I tend the puppy George says yea sure, Lenny is in the barn tending the puppy and then he tends the puppy so hard he kills the puppy and then barn door opens so Lenny is frightened so he quickly hides the puppy under the hay, and Curlys wife walks in â€Å"hello† Lenny and she noticed he had hidden something under the hay so she removes the hay to find that Lenny had hidden the puppy and she saw the puppy was dead, Lenny says â€Å"don’t tell George it was an accident. I was tending it to hard † she says ok then she starts to talk to Lenny and she starts to get all emotional with Lenny she goes to kiss him and Lenny kisses her back and then he hugs her but with out him knowing his own strength he was hugging her to tight and he snaps her neck and she dies . Lenny is scared and frightened so he remembers what George said if you are in a lot of trouble run to this bush and hide until I find you so Lenny runs and hides. Curly has noticed that his wife has been killed and he knows who his responsible the first name he say is Lenny and George says how you know Curly says â€Å"look my wife has been killed and Lenny is know where to be seen† we need to find and I am going to kill him â€Å"no† says George you don’t know the whole story. As everyone at the works are looking for Lenny, George goes to the bush and he sees Lenny sitting there, Lenny is very upset and don’t know what to say George says â€Å"I know what you have done† â€Å"it was an accident† Lenny says. George says Lenny look over the river were we was drinking and keep looking down, George pulls out a gun at the side of his pocked holding it down between his spine join and then up to his head † Lenny want to go to a nice place were we have loads of money loads of food and loads of animals and a big farm were no one can hurt us and you can not hurt any one† yes please says Lenny â€Å"can we go now Lenny says with excitement , yea of course just keep looking at the river , ok Lenny says. Georges gut is hurting but without a word he presses the trigger BANG Lenny just lowers his body with out a noise and just lays there. George is upset for what he had done bur he knew that Lenny was safe now and that he is living the life that he has always wanted to live. George has learnt that you can not get anything that you wish for in life you just have to grab it why you have the chance. Eben if you loose the closes friend you have. THE END Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE John Steinbeck section.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Ethnic Unbonding in South Africa Essay

Manuel Castells notion of ‘ethnic unbonding’ refers to: the gradual withdrawal certain African-Americans are undergoing, so that they no longer are a member of their initial ethnic group. ‘Ethnic unbonding’ is a process where individuals remove themselves from their ethnic groups, because they are either ashamed or humiliated to be associated as part of a stigmatized ethnic identity. â€Å"So, race matters a lot. But, at the same time, the class divide among blacks has created such fundamentally different living conditions that there is growing hostility among the poor against those former brothers that left them out. Most middle-class blacks strive to get ahead not only from the reality of the ghetto, but from the stigma that echoes from the dying ghetto project on them through their skin. They do so particularly, by insulating their children from the poor black communities (moving to suburbs, integrating them into white-dominated private schools), while, at the same time, reinventing an African-American identity that revives the themes of the past, African or American, while keeping silent on the plight of the present† Castell, M p.57. Manuel Castell raises cognizance to the fact that black South Africans are gradually disassociating themselves from their original ethnic identities. (‘Black South Africans’ refers to the non-white individuals of South Africa, those who were disadvantaged and traduced in the homelands during the Apartheid regime). These ethnic unbonding patterns were first noticed among African-Americans and now South Africans too are gradually adopting them. Citizens split from their ethnic groups to mainly better their lives, since being a part of a stigmatized ethnic group cannot ensure a successful and pleasant lifestyle. Parents want a better life for the children and they find that to live a better quality lifestyle one needs to firstly get an education. So they get a good education and become a success in life only to put their stigmatized ethnic background behind them, to avoid risking the loss of their achievements. Ethnic performances are rarely practised and individuals lose sight of where they come from. â€Å"In the last two decades, geographers have become extremely interested in the issue of ethnicity. Ethnic groups are found in essentially all societies. Ethnic groups are populations that feel a common bond and have a sense of common origin that distinguishes them from other groups. Religion, language, national origin, and skin colour are all used to various degrees by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves from others. It is estimated that the 200 or so independent countries recognized by the United Nations are made up of about 5000 ethnic groups. Increased migration of people in the last 200 years has produced a complex pattern of ethnic groups. Essentially, ethnicity is a spatial concept. Ethnic groups are associated with clearly recognized territories, either some large homeland district or some smaller urban or rural enclaves in which they are the primary or exclusive occupant. In addition, they have somehow marked these places with certain distinguished cultural signs. † (http://teacherweb. ftl. pinecrest. edu/snyderd/APHG/Unit%203/culturenotes. htm). Ethnicity is socially important. It gives certain individuals a feeling of belonging and prevents one from feeling isolated and alone. It contributes immensely to one’s core identity, focusing mostly on the construction of one’s personal identity, and in turn having an effect on the type of person an individual turns out to be in the future. It forms the basis of an individual’s structure and agency. Ethnicity also promotes national strength which can be built from the diverse cultural resources present in South Africa. It brings together a national identity. ‘Afrikaners historically considered themselves the only true South Africans and, while granting full citizenship to all residents of European descent, denied that status to people of colour until the democratic transition of 1994. British South Africans retain a sense of cultural and social connection to Great Britain without weakening their identity as South Africans. A similar concept of primary local and secondary ancestral identity is prevalent among people of Indian descent. The Bantu-speaking black peoples have long regarded themselves as South African despite the attempts of the white authorities to classify them as less than full citizens or as citizens of ethnic homelands (â€Å"Bantustans†) between 1959 and 1991. Strong cultural loyalties to African languages and local political structures such as the kingdom and the chieftaincy remain an important component of identity. National identity comes first for all black people, but belonging to an ethnic, linguistic, and regional grouping and even to an ancestral clan has an important secondary status. (http://www. everyculture. com/Sa-Th/South-Africa. html). As a result of years of racial separation and discrimination, the majority of South African citizens of which are black, have been severely ill-treated based on the colour of their skin. â€Å"A race is a population that shares visible physical characteristics from inbreeding and that thinks of itself or is thought of by outsiders as distinct. It has been used by societies to justify poor treatment of minority groups† ( http://www. sociologyguide. com/questions/ethnicity. php). For decades black people have been slandered and stereotyped by the white superior citizens, to be uncultured individuals. White people were entirely prejudiced against the black people. ‘Prejudice is a judgment based on group membership or social status. Prejudice may be formed through both individual and group influences including socialization, rationalizing through stereotypes, the scapegoating process, reinforcement of a self-fulfilling prophecy ramification of an authoritarian personality and degree of contact with minority groups.’ http://www. sociologyguide. com/questions/ethnicity. php. How black ethnic groups emerged? Being ethnic is relating to or a characteristic of a sizable group of people sharing a common and distinctive racial, national, religious, linguistic or cultural heritage. (http://www. thefreedictionary. com. ) Just like the trends in America, black citizens of South Africa formed groups based on commonalities. These people shared hardships and sufferings, as a result of being excluded from having any opportunities and privileges, by the white superiorities. The white citizens undermined the black citizens for centuries and thus blacks were forced to form close relationships with one another based on the fact that they had common deprivations. ‘Bantustans’ were formed in South Africa and these areas were wastelands of hardship. Residents of these areas were forced to deal with struggle and poverty thus leading to an increase in crime rate. People did what they could to survive. Stealing, drug dealing etc. all the forms of violence and corruption exploded from these areas. Put a group of homeless and poor people together and what do you get? Chaos. White people were aware of the disorder in the homelands and ever since then stereotypes were given to black people. What provoked ethnic unbonding? Ethnic unbonding is when individuals from an ethnic group break away from their core cultural identity and instead pursue an identity of their own. Individuals mainly do this to improve their standards of living. The stigmas attached to certain ethnic groups are undesirable and individuals are afraid of being part of these unpleasant stereotypes. Certain groups especially ethnic groups have harsh associations linked to them and for these people to improve their quality of life they need to detach themselves from their ethnic groups. The negativity one receives from being part of a stigmatized ethnic group for some is too much to handle. People want to be freed from the harmful judgements of the past, and thus completely detaching themselves from their core ethnic identity is the best way out. ‘’Race and ethnicity are central – to America, as to other societies’ dynamics – their manifestations seem to be deeply altered by current social trends. ’’ (Castells, 1997: 53). Globalisation affects people’s choices on being or not being part of an ethnic group. Westernization transforms certain cultures and moulds them into a more modernized culture, with less practices and more simplicity. Cultural identity is a victim of globalization. Culture is being altered so much by globalization and media effects that soon the culture will transform into something completely different. According to Tomlinson, J. p. 23 states that â€Å"it is fair to say that the impact of globalization in the cultural sphere has, most generally, been viewed in a pessimistic light. Typically, it has been associated with the destruction of cultural identities, victims of the accelerating encroachment of a homogenized, westernized, consumer culture. † Conclusion Ethnic unbonding is inevitable. Every single individual wants a decent lifestyle and a decent life is one with no racial, gender or ethnic inequalities. Ethnic unbonding will continue to take place in South Africa as well as the rest of the world, because the desire for one to have an improved standard of living exceeds the desire to want to belong to an ethnic area. Castells concept of ethnic unbonding is a notion unknowingly practiced amongst the people of South Africa. Castell believes that individuals belonging to certain ethnic groups are developing boundaries within themselves. However, I think that people can still live a better life and yet maintain a part of their ethnicity. Lifestyles can be adjusted so that some form of their religion and culture is integrated into their everyday life and not forgotten. Future generations might be at risk of never knowing exactly where they come from, and being clueless about their ethnic and cultural heritage. 1. Castells, Manuel. 1997. The power of identity. Cambridge, MA. Blackwell, 52-59 2. Tomlinson, John. Globalization and cultural identity http://www. polity. co. uk/global/pdf/gtreader2etomlinson. pdf(12September 2011) 3. Definitions of race, prejudice and discrimination: http://www. sociologyguide. com/questions/ethnicity. php (12September 2011) 4. Countries and their Culture – South Africa http://www. everyculture. com/Sa-Th/South-Africa. html (12September 2011) 5. THE GLOBALIZATION OF CULTURE, AND THE GEOGRAPHY OF INEQUALITY: RACE, ETHNICITY & GENDER http://teacherweb. ftl. pinecrest. edu/snyderd/APHG/Unit%203/culturenotes. htm (12September 2011) 6. Definition of Ethnic: http://www. thefreedictionary. com (12September 2011).

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Fourty famous studies that influeneced psychology Essay

Born First, Born Smarter This study involves a person’s intellectual development in correlation to the order in which they were born in relation to their siblings. Two research psychologists, Robert B. Zajonc and Gregory B. Markus, developed a theory in an attempt to explain the relationship between birth order and intelligence. They conducted this study by gathering information from previous research and applied it to the data they collected themselves. A research project was conducted n the late 1960’s that involved testing the intellectual abilities of children born at the end of WWII. They found a strong relationship between the birth order and the Raven test scores. The ones born first scored higher, and the score decreased with the declining birth order. However, the average Raven score for the first born in a two family is only about 5 points higher then that for a last born in a family with nine children. So the more children you have, and the smaller the gap between each child is, the more intelligent each child in succession will be. In Control and Glad of It Researchers Ellen J. Langer and Judith Rodin conducted a field experiment using elderly people in an elderly home to test the outcome of when people are given control as opposed to when people have everything done for them. Langer and Rodin’s prediction was that if the loss of personal responsibility for one’s life causes a person to be less happy and healthy, then increasing control and power should have the opposite effect. Two floors of the elderly home were randomly selected to be observed. One floor was given options for certain things such as there furniture arrangement and which movie they would like to attend. The other floor, was given no such options and had everything arranged and done for them by the staff. The staff was asked to fill out questionnaires about the patients on their floor (the staff new nothing of the experiment). The questionnaires had questions on it to comment about things such as if the patents were sociable, happy, alert, and even how much they visited other patients. The differences between the two groups were incredible. They determined that overall, the increased responsibility group’s condition improved over the three weeks of  the study, while the no-control group was doing progressively poorer. They concluded that when people who have been forced to give up their control and decision-making power are given a greater sense of personal responsibility, their lives and attitudes improve, as is true with the opposing side. More Experience = Bigger Brain Mark R. Rosenzweig and Edward L. Bennett wanted to find out if the brain changes in response to experience. Because this experiment involved long periods of observation and even autopsies to observe the changes in the brain, the two researchers couldn’t use human subjects, so they used rats for the experiment. Three male rats where chosen to participate and assigned to one of three conditions. One rat remained in the colony cage with the rest of the colony. One rat was placed in an â€Å"enriched environment† and one was placed in an â€Å"impoverished environment†. There were 12 rats in each of these conditions for each of the 16 experiments. The standard cage had many rats and had adequate space with food and water always available. The improvised environment was a slightly smaller cage, isolated in a separate room, where the rat was alone with adequate food and water. Finally, the enriched environment was a large cage filled with many toys and furnished with e very luxury a rat could want. The results indicated that the brains of the enriched rats were highly different from those of the impoverished rats. The cerebral cortex of the enriched rats was significantly heavier and thicker then those of the impoverished rats. Also, the study found a significantly greater number of glial cells in the enriched rats’ brains compared with the rats raised in the dull environment. After 10 years of experiment and research the researchers could clearly and confidently state that â€Å"there is no doubt that many aspects of brain anatomy and brain chemistry are changed by experience.† However, many scientists were skeptical of there findings because there were factors that Rosenzweig and Bennett didn’t take into consideration. The enriched rats were handled more which could have been a brain stimulus and the impoverished rats could have been stressed from having no contact with anyone or anything at all. See Aggression†¦Do Aggression One of he most famous and influential experiment ever conducted in psychology history demonstrated how children learn to be aggressive. This study by Albert Bandura and his associates Dorothea Ross and Shelia Ross was carried out in 1961 at Stanford University. The researchers asked for the help of the Stanford University nursery in obtaining thirty-six boys and thirty-six girls raging from ages 3-6. The average age for he children was 4 years and 4 months. Twenty four of the children were assigned to the control group which was the group that wasn’t exposed to any model. The rest of the children were divided into two groups: one exposed to aggressive models and one exposed to non-aggressive models, they were also divided by sex. They eventually had 8 experimental groups divided by gender and level of aggression. First, the experimenter brought a child from one of the groups to a playroom with an adult model. The adult model beat a Bobo doll with a fake mallet while the child played with other toys. Another child was brought in after and the adult model ignored the Bobo doll. This went on for all the groups. 1) The children who were exposed to the violent models tended to imitate the exact violent behaviors they observed when left alone with the Bobo doll. 2) Overall, girls were more likely to imitate the verbal aggression toward the Bobo doll, while the boys showed more physical violence. 3) Boys were significantly more physically aggressive then girls in nearly all the conditions. 4) The boys used the mallet significantly more then girls in almost all of the conditions. 5) The control group was generally less violent then the experimental group.6) in cases with a non-aggressive female, the children used hardly any aggressive language. What You Expect Is What You Get This study involves teacher’s expectancies of pupils and how that affects the students I.Q. gains. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson conducted a study where they theorized that when an elementary school teacher is provided with information (such as I.Q. scores) that creates certain expectancies about a student’s potential, either strong or weak, the teacher might unknowingly behave in ways that subtly encourage or facilitate the performance of the students seen as more likely to succeed. An elementary school was chosen and  all the children grades 1-6 were given an I.Q. test near the beginning of the year. The teachers were told that there students were taking the â€Å"Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition†. This was told to them because this test was supposed to be a predictor for a child’s academic blooming. Teachers believed that students that scored higher would enter a period of increased learning abilities. This was also not true. Children were chosen at random to be within the top 20 percentile of this test and the teachers were informed of this. All other children were the control group of this experiment. At the end of the year the children were tested again using the I.Q. test and the children originally chosen for the top 20% showed a significantly increased score then those of the control group in grades one and two. In grades 3-6 the difference was not so great. The reason for the 1st and 2nd grade development was thought to be because of how younger minds were more malleable then older children and how younger children don’t have a reputation from previous school years. I Can See It All Over Your Face Researchers Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Freisen conducted a study about how facial expressions and emotions are a universal language. The first problem with this experiment was that the researchers had to find subjects that had never been exposed to media or magazines because this would enable the subjects to not truthfully identify a certain emotional expression. Ekman and Freisen found a group of people like this in the Southeast Highlands of New Guinea called the Fore people. They were an isolated Stone Age society with not much contact of any other people outside there environment, let alone any media. They had not been exposed to emotional facial expressions other then those of there own people. The two researchers showed there experimental groups of adults and children pictures of different facial expressions of people from the United States and told them a sentence. They asked them to identify by pointing, to the correct matching facial expression. The adults were given three pictures to choose from and the children were given two. There was not much difference between male and female recognition of expressions, however the children did fair a little better in the experiment. This could have been attributed to the fact that  the children only had to choose between two pictures instead of three. The results for both adults and children clearly support the researcher’s theory that particular facial behaviors are universally associated with particular emotions. The only trouble that the Fore people had was distinguishing between fear and surprise, and this was because these people closely associated fear and surprise as one emotion. Racing Against Your Heart Using their earlier research and clinical observations, two cardiologists, Meyer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman, developed a model of traits for a specific type of persons behavioral pattern that they believed was related to growing levels of cholesterol and to heart disease. The first pattern, pattern A, had characteristics such as a drive to achieve your goals, a competing personality, multi-tasking that involves meeting deadlines, and extreme alertness. Following this is another type of people, called pattern B. Pattern B is the exact opposite of pattern A. They lacked drive, ambition, desire to compete, and involvement in deadlines. A third set of behaviors developed was called pattern C. This was very much like pattern B but involved anxiety and insecurity. Friedman and Rosenman interviewed about 166 men for there experiment. They first questions they asked them were about there family’s medical history, so they could see if they had CHD. While in this interview the researc hers categorized each man into a pattern A or B category by the way he answered questions, or his tone, or body language. Each subject was asked to keep a log of there diet over the course of a week and blood tests were taken from each of the men to measure cholesterol levels. Friedman and Rosenman matched each man into pattern A and pattern B easily. Each man fit into one of the developed patterns. The researchers found that the men in Pattern A group had significantly higher chances of heart disease and that type A behavior was a major cause of blood abnormalities. However there could be other reasons why Type A had higher chances of heart disease such as, there family’s history. More men in the pattern A group had parents with heart disease. Another difference was that pattern A men smoked more cigarettes a day then did the subjects in group B. This study was very important in the history of psychology for a few  reasons. One way was that it proved certain behavioral patterns can cause major heart related illness. Another is that this study began a new line of research and questioning into t he relationship between behavior and CHD. The largest long-range outcome from this study that has played an important role in creating a new branch of psychology called health psychology. Not Practicing What You Preach This study involves attitudes and actions toward different racial groups. It was determine if what people say is actually what they will do if they come face to face with the problem. Richard T. LaPiere traveled extensively with a young Chinese couple in 1930 and 1931. The couple was very nice and personable and he was glad to be traveling with them. During this time there was a lot of prejudice in the U.S. against Asians. So, LaPiere was very surprised when the Asian couple was graciously accommodated at a very fine hotel that had a reputation for greatly disliking Orientals. Two months later he called the same hotel and asked if they would accommodate a very important Chinese man and they said defiantly not. LaPiere then developed a theory that stated â€Å"What people say is often not what they do†. The study was conducted in two separate parts. First, LaPiere went with his Chinese friends to many hotels and restaurant throughout the U.S. over the course of two years. He took record of how the couple was treated and made sure to first stay out of site of the managers of the establishments to ensure that the couple wouldn’t be treated differently in his presence. The second part of the experiment was for LaPiere to wait 6 months after there trip (to make sure the effect of the Chinese couples visit had faded), and then call each establishment that they went to or stayed at, and asked them if they would accommodate a Chinese person. After almost three years, LaPiere had enough information to make a comparison of social attitudes social behavior. Out of the 251 hotels and restaurants they attended, only one refused the couple and LaPiere service because of the couple’s race. Aside from that instance, all other places accommodated them with average or above average service. When he received most of the letters back with an answer from the hotels and restaurants over 90% of them said they would absolutely not accommodate anyone of the Chinese race. This confirmed LaPiere’s theory that what people  say, is not always how they will act. The Power of Conformity Research psychologist Solomon E. Asch conducted a study to see if people will give into peer pressure and conform to there friends ideas. A person was let into a room (Subject A) with seven other subjects. These seven people, without subject A knowing, were not participants in the experiment, they were helping the experimenter. Each person was asked which line was longer on a card that was shown to them. Subject A went first and then followed was the seven other subjects and then subject A was asked again. They did this several times until one time, all the other subjects disagreed with subject A and all picked the same one, different form his choice. When the card came back to subject A he picked the one everyone else picked. Seventy-Five percent of the time the first subject will conform to the group’s consensus at least once. The powerful effects of group pressures to conform were clearly demonstrated in Asch’s study. There are four factors that could have an effect on the reduction of conformity. These factors are social support, attraction and commitment to the group, size of the group, and gender of the group. If you have people on your side you are more likely to stay with your answer rather then conform. Crowding Into The Behavioral Sink The effects of crowding on our behavior are something that has interested psychologists for decades. One man in particular, John B. Calhoun was especially interested in it when he conducted this study on crowding and social pathology. It may be hard to believe but rats do have a social side. The reason Calhoun used rats were because he needed many subjects for long periods of time that were willing to crowd together for a while. Humans wouldn’t be very good at this. He used a 10Ãâ€"14 foot room and divided it into 4 sections. Section one was connected to section 2 by a ramp, section 2 was connected to section 3 by a ramp, and section 3 was connected to section 4 by a ramp. The walls were electrified so in order to get from section 1 to section 4 you needed to go through all the rooms. The rooms were also filled  with shreds of paper, in order for the rats to make nests. The experimenter filled the rooms with rats. They started with about 4 rats and waited or the rats to multiply until they reached 80. When over 80 were reached some rats were removed so they always had a constant number. When the rats got older, they started to fight with each other for space even though it wasn’t necessarily too crowded. The two end rooms were soon fought for because they got the most space and privacy so the rat that won the fight always stayed on guard at the end of the ramp for security. Some rats became submissive and others always fought. Some of the rats were very sexually active and some wanted nothing to do with it. Some of the mothers in the two middle pens became inadequate. They often left their children and lost all maternal abilities. One environment where the same thing that happened to the rats might happen to humans is in an overcrowded prison. It was found in a very crowded prison where each inmate has approximately 50 square feet, as opposed to one with more room, there were more cases of homicides, suicide, illness, and disciplinary problems. Crowding also has negative effects on problem-solving abilities. When in a small room that’s crowded subjects had a more difficult time listening to a story and putting tighter a puzzle, then did another group with more space and the same tasks. Relaxing Your Fears Away Researcher Joseph Wolpe was a research psychologist specializing in the systematic desensitization treatment of neuroses. The word phobia comes from Phobos, the name of the Greek god of fear. Phobias are divided into three main categories. Simple phobias are phobias that involve irrational fears of animals or specific situations such as small spaces or heights. Social phobias are irrational fears about interaction with others. Agoraphobia is the irrational fear of being in an unfamiliar, open, or crowded space. These are all irrational and all can be treated in similar ways. Systematic desensitization is a behavioral technique that was credited to Wolpe as perfecting and applying it to the treatment of anxiety disorders. Systematic desensitization is the way of unlearning a learned behavior. Reciprocal inhibition is when two responses inhibit each other, and only one may exist at a given moment. There are three steps that a patient must follow in order  to rid themselves of a phobi a. Wolpe says that you cannot be in a complete relaxed state and have an irrational fear at the same time, so the first step is relaxation. He taught the patient to go into a deep state of relaxation whenever they wanted or needed too. The process involves tensing and relaxing your muscles until you have reached a state of complete relaxation. Wolpe also incorporated hypnosis to ensure full relaxation. The next step in the process is for the therapist and patient to develop a list of high anxiety-producing situations involving your phobia. Starting with the least stressful and ending with the most stressful. The final stage is called the unlearning stage. The patient has to go into a deep state of relaxation and the therapist will read off to you your fears of the list. If at any point you feel anxiety the therapist stops you return to your relaxation mode and the therapist will continue. This process continues until the therapist can go through the entire list with you feeling the least bit anxious. The success of their therapy was judged by the patients own reports and by the occasional direct observation. He had a success rate of 91% with the 39 cases he had. The average number of treatment sessions needed was 12.3. Wolpe said that he hasn’t had any patient relapse after a complete desensitization recovery. Who’s Crazy Here, Anyway? David L. Rosenhan conducted an experiment with sane people going into mental facilities claiming to hear voices, to see if the patients would be immediately released if acting completely sane. Rosenhan questioned whether the characteristics that lead to psychological diagnoses reside in the patients themselves or in the situations in which the observers find the patients. Eight subjects including Rosenhan committed themselves to eight different mental hospitals. Each subject was completely sane and in perfect mental health. When committing themselves to the hospital they complained of hearing voices and all but one where admitted and on record as having schizophrenia. Each patient once admitted, acted perfectly sane and showed no signs of schizophrenia yet were treated as though they did have a mental illness throughout their entire stay. They were given medication which they disposed of and were not treated as normal people. It was as if because they  were in the mental hospital, they were automatically considered to not be a real human being. Rosenhan’s study demonstrated rather strongly that normal â€Å"patients† cannot be distinguished from the mentally ill in a hospital setting. According to Rosenhan, this is because of the strength of the mental setting has over the patient’s actual behavior. Once patients are admitted to such a place, there is a strong inclination for them to be viewed in ways that strip them of all individuality. This study surprises me. I’m taken aback that these professionals that have worked with mentally ill patients cannot decipher between a truly mental patient and a completely mentally-healthy patient. It is extremely unprofessional that the staff member/nurse did at one of the facilities by adjusting her bra in front of patients as if they weren’t real people. Thanks For The Memories One of the leading researchers in the area of memory is Elizabeth Loftus at the University of Washington. She has found that when an event is recalled it is not accurately recreated. Instead it’s what’s called reconstructive memory. Loftus defines a presupposition as a condition that must be true in order for the question to make sense. For example, suppose that you have witnessed an automobile accident and I ask you, â€Å"How many people were in the car that was speeding?† The question presupposes that the car was speeding. One experiment done by Loftus was having students in small groups watch a car accident video that was about 1 minute long. After the film ended the students had to answer questions. For half the students the first question was â€Å"How fast was car A going when it ran the stop sign?† The other students had a question that read â€Å"How fast was car A going when I turned right?† The last question for both groups was â€Å"Did you see the stop sign?† In the group that had been asked about the stop sign 53% of the subjects said they saw a stop sign for car A, while only 35% in the â€Å"turned right† group claimed to have seen it. Based on these and other studies, Loftus argues that an accurate theory of memory and recall must include a process of reconstruction that occurs when new information is integrated into the original memory of an event. There is little doubt that in the course of criminal prosecutions, eye witness reports are subject to many sources of  error such as post event information integration.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

The aim of this paper is to investigate the transformation

The aim of this paper is to investigate the transformation of the Byronic Hero from its creation in early Greek theatre through classical English literature and 19th-Century Russian literature to the modern times. The Byronic Hero is probably one of the most widespread literary types. Under the term ‘Byronic Hero’ literary critics conventionally mean a young man, well-bred and intelligent but rebellious and usually disapproved and disregarded by the larger part of the society. He is an exile and ultimately self-destructive:‘For the Byronic overreacher, who longs to fulfil his divine aspirations, the human body is a form of imprisonment’ (Wu, 2005, p. 891). A typical Byronic Hero not always handsome, yet always inextricably attractive, often to both sexes: ‘Not exactly handsome, the Byronic hero is magnetically attractive, with a piercing gaze and an air of mystery. His face seems to signify that he is haunted by some terrible crime’ (Polidori, L e Fanu & Stoker, 2002, p. 6). Thorsley (1984, p. 189), an influential researcher of Romanticism, gives the following account of the Byronic Hero:‘†¦the Byronic Hero is the one protagonist who in stature and in temperament best represents the [heroic] tradition in England. ’ The image of the Byronic Hero is surprisingly controversial. He is usually disapproved and disregarded by the larger part of the society. Thorsley (1984, p. 187) notes that, ‘with the loss of his titanic passions, his pride, and his certainty of self-identity, he loses also his status as hero. ’ It is more than self-evident that the classical Byronic Heroes is Byron’s Childe Harold. The Canto I from the Childe Harold's Pilgrimage provides an excessive proof for all the abovementioned images of a Byronic Hero.The following lines can be interpreted as the example of rebellious nature of the Byronic Hero: ‘Who ne in virtue's ways did take delight/But spent his days in riot most uncouth†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Canto I, 2, lines 1-2) A Byronic hero is melancholic and ‘sick at heart’: ‘And now Childe Harold was sore sick at heart†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Canto I, 6, line 1) Finally, a Byronic hero is constantly wandering and forcing himself to voluntary exile: The Childe departed from his father's hall†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Canto I, 7, line 1) So we see that the Childe Harold's Pilgrimage outlines a conventional image of a Byronic hero.Different variations of the Byronic Hero can be found in literature and popular culture, yet all of them are united by certain distinguishing features: ‘The Byronic hero strives to penetrate the barriers of nature and history, whether it be Manfred in the Hall of Arimanes, Cain with Lucifer in Hades, or Harold exploring the historical topography of Europe’ (Wu, 1999, p. 479). All the aforementioned examples are taken from Romantic literature. However, it is important to note that the Byronic Hero emerged much ear lier than the epoch of Childe Harold.Precursors of this typical hero of English Romanticism can be traced back to Greek theatre. The notion of hamartia is intrinsically linked to the early development of the Byronic Hero: ‘Another primary characteristic of the classical ideal of the tragic hero was the hamartia, or the tragic flaw. Generally, this flaw was hubris, or excessive pride in one's position or abilities that led to a failure to exercise proper judgment in a situation. This lack of judgment led the hero along the wrong path and thus brought about his fall’ (Broussard, 2000, para. 4).Classical Greek tragedies always feature a tragic hero who can be regarded as the earliest embodiment of the Byronic Hero. The Byronic Hero is present in literary Gothicism as one of the literary trends within the tradition of Romanticism. In the Romantic literature, two different types of heroes can be found, namely Satanic Hero and Byronic Hero. Byronic hero is associated predomin antly with female features, and power isn’t his attribute – he is characterized by meekness and tenuity. To the contrary, the Satanic hero bears all the typical masculine features and is associated with impressive and aggressive power.In fact, Satan is also believed to be an early version of the Byronic Hero. Despite some apparent differences, these two literary types have much in common: ‘Like Satan, the Byronic hero is an outsider and an overreacher, though the divine Law that he violates is not the First Commandment but the Seventh, a sin often involving not only adultery but incest’ (Polidori, Le Fanu & Stoker, 2002, p. 6). As for the classical period in literature, Heathcliff from ‘Wuthering Heights’ is another example of Byronic hero. He is only obsessed by his love for Cathy and hatre for everyone all the rest:‘In the uncouth, passionate Heathcliff, Bronte creates a Byronic hero who lives outside conventional morality’ (Pla tt & Matthews, 2003, p. 509). Captain Ahab from ‘Moby Dick’ is sometimes also cited as a Byronic Hero, although there no broad consensus among critics: ‘Captain Ahab's rebellious nature and attitude towards existing norms illustrates his Byronic qualities, as well as the overall dark nature of his humanity’ (Hospelhorn & Nicolson, 2003, ‘Moby Dick’). Byronic Hero found new incarnation in classic Russian literature.Such notable writers as Alexander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky, Alexander Pushkin, and Mikhail Lermontov all contributed to the emergence of the phenomenon later referred to as ‘the Russified Byronic Hero’; it is also important to point out that this type of the Byronic Hero was significantly different from the classical interpretation (Malone, 2006). Bestuzhev-Marlinsky, an important representative of Russian Romanticism and Byronism, creates a hero in Sturm und Drang style, heavily influenced by other ramifications of European R omanticism (Bagby, 1995).Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin is also perceived as another example of ‘the Russified Byronic Hero’; he prefers loneliness to happiness and forces himself into voluntary isolation, caught in the everlasting ennui. Another variation of this type of Byronic Hero can be found in Turgenev’s ‘A Hero of our Time’: ‘Bazarov, as an extreme example of the tragic Byronic hero, generates his own moral code within his society and proves to have a rebellious nature towards the stereotypical society boundaries in which he is held’ (Hospelhorn & Nicolson, 2003, ‘A Hero of our Time’).At the same time, Pechorin from Lermontov’s ‘Fathers and Sons’ is believed to be the classical example of Russified Byronic Hero: ‘Perchorian displays byronic qualities as a wandering nomad, unable to establish lasting permanance with the society that created him. Lermontov was a noted scholar of Byron; incorpo rating his writings into much of his own literature and poetry’ (Hospelhorn & Nicolson, 2003, ‘Fathers and Sons’). Lermontov is credited for the creation of another vivid example of Byronic Hero in Russian literature, the Demon. In general, Lermontov contributed a lot to the evolution of Byronic hero in Russian poetry:‘Lermontov's early Byronic poems constituted one of the major phenomena of Russian romanticism, while his poems ‘The Demon’ and ‘Mtsyri’ demonstrate re-evaluation of Byronic ideas and the crisis of poetic individualism’ (Muraviev, 2005, para. 1). Dostoevsky’s Raskolnikov from ‘Crime and Punishment’ is sometimes regarded to be Realistic hero; however, he bears numerous traits that are typical for Byronic Hero: ‘As in the case with the earlier Russian Byronic heroes, Rodion Raskolnikov’s isolation is not physical, but stems from his mental isolation from, and feeling of superiorit y over, the society in which he lives.Since his status above his contemporaries cannot be reinforced by physically distancing himself from them, Raskolnikov cultivates a mental and spiritual isolation’ (Malone, 2006, para. 5). In the modern time, the recreation of the Byronic Hero is often attributed to Albert Camus in his novel ‘The Rebel’: ‘But it was Camus's recreation, in modern terms, of the solitary Byronic hero, who resists fate and an alien world by defiant acts, which brought the cult so vividly to life and gave it actual meaning to youth on both sides of the Rhine’ (Johnson, 2001, p.575). As for the contemporary incarnation of the Byronic Hero, the brightest example is found in popular culture rather than literature. Jim Morrison projects the majority of the characteristics of the Byronic Hero. The Byronic Hero is an extraordinary and talented young man. The tremendous success of Jim Morrison leaves no doubt in his enormous talent and energ y. Secondly, the Byronic Hero is rebellious and opposes almost all social laws and norms. He deliberately distances himself from the social institutions.This feature was characteristic of Jim Morrison from the early childhood: he used to question authority and for that he was dismissed from the scout club; at night, he used to leave home secretly and go to crowded and disreputable bars. His juvenile misbehaving soon evolved into a consistent social protest expressed trough music and show. ‘Philosophies of Protest’ was his favorite course in Florida State University. Morrison rejected social institution, and we find evidence for it in the fact that he had never been married. Instead, he ‘married’ Patricia Kennealy in a Celtic pagan ceremony.The Byronic Hero is never impressed by rank and privilege though he may possess it. Jim Morrison might have become a representative of the ‘golden youth’ with good educational background, stable job, and resp ectable position in the society. But his choice was in favour of the flamboyant bohemian lifestyle. The conventional Byronic Hero is well-red and possibly well-bread. Jim Morrison took a keen interest in self-education; he devoted time to reading Nietzsche, Jung, Ginsberg, Joyce and Balzac. He derived inspiration in the writing of French symbolists, especially Rimbaud.It’s very interesting to observe that Arthur Rimbaud himself was an exemplary Byronic Hero, with his dark passions and impressive talents. Another indicator of the Byronic Hero is the exile, usually imposed by the young men himself. Paris exile is an essential part of Jim Morrison’s biography. The Byronic Hero is continually depressed and melancholy. It is reported that in Paris Jim searched for a sense of life and a sense himself in the world as well as for inspiration to create impressive poetry. But even in the city of great poets Jim was constantly uninspired and severely depressed.Making an overall c onclusion, it is necessary to remind that the figure of the Byronic Hero is first found in classical Greek theatre in the form of the tragic hero. During the Middle Ages, the literary figure of Satan was developed as a prototype of the Byronic Hero. The classical example of this literary type is Byron’s Childe Harold. Numerous examples in classical literature prove that this type was appealing to the reader, especially in the era of Romanticism. Russified Byronic Hero is one of the most notable variations of this literary type. French symbolists and Albert Camus reinvented the Byronic Hero at the dawn of the 20th century.The Byronic Hero remains attractive to the audience now and is widely used in popular culture. References Bagby, Lewis. Alexander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky and Russian Byronism. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. Lord Byron. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. Teddington, UK: Echo Library, 2006. Johnson, Paul M. Modern Times Revised Edition: Th e World from the Twenties to the Nineties. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, Revised ed. , 2001. Thorslev, Peter L. Romantic Contraries: Freedom Versus Destiny. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984. Platt, Dewitt, and Roy Matthews.Western Humanities, Complete. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Polidori, John William, Le Fanu, Joseph Sheridan, and Bram Stoker. Three Vampire Tales: Dracula, Carmilla, and The Vampyre. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002. Wu, Duncan. Companion to Romanticism. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Limited, 1999. Wu, Duncan. Romanticism: An Anthology. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Limited, Third ed, 2005. Broussard, Jonathan. ‘Diabolos Herodes: Victor Hugo’s Presentation of Satan as a Heroic Figure, Or The Devil With a Cause. ’ April 6, 2000. August 19, 2007. Hospelhorn, Sarah, and Andrew Nicolson. ‘Byronic Heroes in Russian Literature. ’ April 2003. August 19, 2007. Malone, Caitlin. ‘Cloak and Axe: Dostoevskyâ€⠄¢s Raskolnikov as a Byronic Hero. ’ The Birch, a Journal of Eastern European and Eurasian Culture. Fall 2006. August 19, 2007. Muraviev, O. S. ‘Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov (1814 – 1841). ’ Institute of Russian Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2005. August 19, 2007.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Renewable energy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Renewable energy - Essay Example newable energy sources is that the energy sources like natural gas, coal, and oil have no permanent reservoirs and they will be exhausted at some time in future. Therefore, the world has turned to renewable energy sources as alternatives to traditional sources of energy (Hick, n.d.). Renewable energy sources are some of the very beneficial energy sources for a country. Some of the most considerable advantages of renewable energy include sustainability, less maintenance requirement, reduced cost of operations, and increased economic benefits. These advantages also make renewable energy sources very critical for the economic stability of a country. These resources not only bring economic benefits, but also they put a very minimal impact on the environment because of generation of very little amount of waste products. No polluting emissions and repeated use without depletion are also two of the most considerable advantages of renewable energy. Apart from the advantages, there also exist some disadvantages of renewable energy. However, the number of disadvantages is very less as compared to the advantages. Some of the disadvantages include difficulty in generating electricity quantities equivalent to fossil fuel generated electricity and unreliability under certain conditions. Let us now discuss some of the widely used sources of renewable energy in order to get a clear picture of their advantages and disadvantages. There are six major types of renewable energy sources, which include hydropower energy source, wind energy source, solar energy source, geothermal energy source, biomass energy source, and nuclear power. Let us discuss all of them in some detail. Hydropower energy source is the most recent invention in renewable energy. Hydropower is the largest source of renewable energy, which has the generating capacity of 77,000 Megawatts (Conlan, 2009). It is due to the scarcity and rising prices of oil and gas that a large number of developed countries are putting

Monday, August 12, 2019

In the Lake of the Woods, by Tim O'brien Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

In the Lake of the Woods, by Tim O'brien - Essay Example He pictured the lake itself as â€Å"vast and cold†¦infinitely blue and beautiful and always the same† (O’Brien, p.1). This allowed the reader to feel that the lake by itself is peaceful yet elicits feelings of isolation. With this O’Brien builds mystery and fear, the lake brings a warning to the reader that something is going wrong or might go wrong while the couple settles in the cottage by the lake. Vietnam, on the other hand, is described as full of mud, mines and maze. This depicts clearly a view that this is a place of danger. John’s traumatic experiences in the Vietnam War, particularly the My Lai massacre, is a proof that he has deep inner conflicts and guilt that plagues his mind resulting not only to a crack in his psychological fitness but also deepens the gap between him and his wife. Situating the story back and forth the primary settings while inserting settings of the civilized and modern world in the form of the university campus in Minnesota, Minneapolis-St Paul and Las Vegas symbolizes the contrast between reality and delusions. This created an impact on the reader that both Vietnam and the lake symbolizes horror and secrets, both of which can destroy a person and his relationship with other people. This in fact is what happened with John and Kathy’s marriage. It has been destroyed by the secrets of both. It may seem that the settings symbolized the main characters, Vietnam for John and the lake for Kathy. The mystery and secrets behind Vietnam and the lake both resulted to their