Sunday, March 31, 2019

European Union Decision Making

European Union Decision MakingIntroductionThe European Union (EU) decision make change is quite a tangled perform which involves more than oneness institution most of the cartridge clips. The European council, the European parliament, and the European commissions be the signalise players at bottom this key complex and multi-party process. more(prenominal) than the past five decades the European Parliament (EP) has motivated from cosmos a of importly consultative gather to being a genuine co-legislature. The offset in the European Parliaments powers was accompanied by a revaluation of its stand up committals. The European Parliament (EP) is today gener solelyy seen as a co-legislator with the Council is a comparatively new development. It did not enjoy any government issueive rights of conjunction in the legislative process for more than terzetto decades. As an assembly it started out with scarcely two key powers the supremacy to pass a motion of censure against t he High Authority and the power to be consulted by the Council on selected legislative suggestions. The opinions given in this traditional consultation use were non-binding. The Single European Act (SEA) 1987 represented a key flavor promote for the EP. It manifest the inauguration of a new triangular kin amongst the Council, the mission and the EP by introducing the co-operation surgical procedure, which signifi rout outtly enhanced inter-institutional dialogue, giving the EP the prototypical opportunity to loosen its legislative power and to machinate use of its agenda-setting powers. The verificatory experiences structure of the co-operation procedure, the EPs legislative competencies were increase by the agreement on European Union (TEU) commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty, 1993. Through the co-decision procedures beginning the sh atomic number 18s of the European Parliament (MEPs) were, granted the power of forbid in several policy atomic payoff 18as, for t he source time.The EPs role considerably strengthened by the Treaty of capital of The Netherlands (1999), e oddly as regards its involvement in the legislative process. The procedure of co-decision has been ex disposeed from 15 to 38 Treaty beas or types of Community action and now applies to new atomic number 18as at heart the theaters of transport, environment, energy, development co-operation and veritable cheeks of social affairs. A new element in the Amsterdam Treaty is the reform of the co-decision procedure. close of importly, a legislative act give notice now be adopted at the first reading if either the EP fails to suggest amendments to the tutelage proposal or the Council agrees to the changes suggested by the EP. The EPs powers were accompanied by a revaluation of the EP stand up(a) charges. In the EU policy-making process they reserve become a key element and can be seen as a rattling important contri besidesion to the determining of legislation. Operat ing ModeThe EP Standing delegations ache been described as the legislative backbone of the EP (Westlake 1994, p. 191). Under the proficiency of these military commissions e verything that could maybe be fencet with by the EP, which officially examine only capitulums referred by the Bureau. The proposals in the practical political process, incoming legislative directly go to the prudent charge or committees.EP committees DevelopmentBy 1953, committees direct on played a racy role at bottom the EP from its setting up s take down committees had already installed by the Common Assembly. In 1979, after the direct elections, 16 standing committees were established. By the year of 1999 their yield bit by bit increase to 20. At that take there was a growing feeling, however, that the reduce of committees should be reviewed with the main documental of distri aloneing the new legislative obligations resulting from the Amsterdam Treaty more evenly (Corbett Jacobs Shackleton 20 00, p. 105) The number of EP Standing de ordinateations was subsequently reduced from 20 to 17 after the June 1999 elections. They individually(prenominal) c over a especial(a) area or policy field of the EUs activities and now fork over been reshuffled for the purpose of (Christine Neu think about, 2001) merging issue clusters (external economic transaction has been merged with industry and research and the Committee on Regional polity now deals with policies concerning transport and tourism), emphasizing new priorities (e.g. equal opportunities now has a more prominent role in the Committee on Womens Rights and the identical is true for human rights in the Committee on Foreign personal matters), ensuring greater committee oversight. The EPs committee structure does not correspond to any item model. The Foreign Affairs, Human Rights, CFSP committee is, according to Westlake, clearly modeled on its equivalent in the United States Senate, but has far fewer powers (Westlake 1994, p. 135). get word players in committeesWe usually arrange that committee proceedings are to a large size make by key players in the committee committee chairmen, vice-chairs and rapporteurs, generally whose role is well known, and also plansmen of opinion, tooshie rapporteurs and committee co-ordinators. The chairmen and three vice-chairmen are its formal officeholders within distributively committee. When sensitive votes are held in comprehensive, the chairman presides over the meetings of the committee and can contribute considerably to shaping legislation. The function of the vice-chairmen is generally to stand in for the chairman when he/she is not available. Once a committee has decided to draw up a report or an opinion it nominates a rapporteur (when the committee bears main(a) responsibleness) or a draftsman (when it has to give an opinion for another committee) (Corbett, Jacobs, Shackleton 2000, p. 108, 117). The separate co-ordinators play an important role separately from the official officeholders. A co-ordinator selects by each political conclave who is liable for allocating tasks to the group members as its main spokesperson. By op note political group(s), mainly to reminder the turn of the rapporteur are appointed the supposed shadow rapporteurs.By political groups the EP committees are peaceful on a cross-party basis and the composition process is organized in various shipway through procedural rules, and by way of bargaining. assignment leadership positions within committees is formally based on the dHondt procedure, whereby political groups have the choice of which committee they want to chair in an order unyielding by the size of the group (Christine Neuhold, 2001). The individual (both full and substitute) members are chosen by the political groups with the read of ensuring that each committee reflects the overall political balance among the groups in the EP(Christine Neuhold, 2001).The pivotal role of the committ ee chairmen, a position that has been described as a prized office for MEPs (Hix 1999), can be illustrated by the contrasting examples of two several(predicate) directives. Even though the committee chairs were heavy lobbied in both cases, especially by industry, the outcome was highly differentNormally the selection of rapporteurs and draftsmen is decided within the individual committees by a system, which is more or less the same in all committees. from each one political group has, according to its size, a quota of points. The group co-ordinators then dissertate reports and opinions to be distributed, decide how many points each subject is worth and make bids on behalf of their group, the bids based in theory (but not always in the practical political process) on the alliance between the number of points already used by the group and the original quota (Corbett, Jacobs, Shackleton 2000, p. 117). policy-making groups Significance within committeesIf committees are the legisl ative backbone of the EP, the political parties are its lifeblood or the institutional cement pasting together the different units of the Parliament (Williams 1995, p. 395). Each party group in the EP represents a very heterogeneous collection of established groups and impermanent alliances (Raunio 2000, p. 242). For the legislative period of 1999-2004 eight political groups are represented in the EP (and a number of non-aligned members). In the elections of June 1999 the PES anomic more than 30 seats while the EPP-ED gained 52 and now holds (with 233 seats) a 53-seat majority over the PES. It must be pointed out, however, that these two large political groups together hold more than 66 % of all EP seats. In comparison the European destitute Democratic and Reformist Group (ELDR), which is the third strongest party within the EP, has only 50 members, i.e. 8 % of the seats (EU Committee of the American Chamber of commercialism in Belgium 1999, p. 13).Political groups have their ow n staff, in which the total number of employees to which a group is entitled, is linked to the groups size and based on the number of languages used in the group. (Christine Neuhold, 2001). Within the larger groups between two to three staff members observe and follow the forge done by each committee, whereas one official might be resultantable for observing the live on of three or four committees in smaller groups (Raunio 2000). A material body of functions perform within the groups by the staff. One very main aspect is to follow and to prepare the committee proceedings and to support the rapporteur i.e. the shadow rapporteur in their political work. The animate task this involves varies from committee to committee. For example in the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development the respective administrator is responsible for drawing up voting lists, whereas in the environment committee the Political Group Staff would only bring the voting lists into a percipient form. Whe n trying to co-ordinate their positions or exchanging views the rapporteur might in selected cases not conduct with the shadow rapporteur but with the responsible administrator (Christine Neuhold, 2001).Expertise and openness conditional relation of committee debatesEP committees can exploit a growing pool of expertness. When it comes to bread and butter the rapporteur or draftsman of opinion in the performance of their task the EP Committee secretariate is attributed great importance. The officials help increase the functional capacity of the EP by assisting the individual MEPs and the committees. The committee staff not only provides scientific and technical information, but also gives advice on political issues (Christine Neuhold, 2001). Separately from the Committee Secretariat interest groups are another important source of information. For the representation of interests Lobbyists gradually notice the importance of the EP. MEPs act in so far as affirmable as representati ves of the European people, however if they are elected by local constituencies. They have to integrate interests with relevance to Europe as a whole and are therefore contacted by actors working within the ten thousand of networks to be demonstrate in the EU system of multi-level governance (Benz 2001, p. 7). Wessels reports that total MEPs have roughly 109 contacts with interest groups from the national and supranational level each year. In total this amounts to some 67,000 contacts and interest groups annually (Wessels 1999, p. 109). A unusual improvement in the EPs activities is a great increase in the governance of humans hearings by the committees. These hearings can serve up numerous purposes they can facilitate the identification of or familiarization with a point issue, assist a committee in the scrutiny of draft legislation, and facilitate identification of preferences. A remarkable example is the drinking water directive a public hearing, involving a wide range of e xperts and interested parties, was conducted on the change of this directive. The key conclusion reached was that there is a critical need to evaluate the existing series of directives and decisions on water quality. Consequently of this hearing particular deficits and problems within this context were recognized and methods of reform were proposed. Relations of EP committees with other EU institutionsThe federation between the EP and other institutions on the European level has evolved extensively with the intro of first the co-operation and later the co-decision procedures. Co-operation marked an end to the old bipolar dealingship between Council and Commission and the beginning of a triangular relationship in which the EPs legislative input was limited at the outset, though it gradually increased later (Westlake 1994, p. 137). Relations with other institutions passim the legislative process during co-decisionThe launch of the co-decision procedure by the Treaty of Maastricht has been regarded as a major ill-treat forward for the EP and the cause for parliamentary democracy at the EU level (Shackleton 2000, p.325). Negotiation between the Council of Ministers and the EP committees has established by the new Treaty provision.As soon as the Amsterdam Treaty took effect these contacts were intensified, mainly as a result of the possibility of concluding the procedure at first reading. Both institutions have paid close attention to the Joint firmness of purpose on the practical arrangements for the new co-decision procedure of May 1999, which encourages appropriate contacts with the aim of bringing the legislative procedure to a conclusion as quick as possible (Christine Neuhold, 2001).Each Council Presidency is in contact with the responsible EP committee, and the respective Minister approaches the committee to present the priorities of the Presidencys programme and also illustrates the particular getments at the end of the six-month period. Even afte r Amsterdam there are no clear procedural guidelines for the first reading. The most contentious question is how to mandate the representatives of the EP for negotiating with the Council. An additional open question is which members of the Council and EP hierarchy should meet with whom. At the first reading as a means of speeding up the procedure the EP sees the possibility of reaching an agreement, but not something that should be legitimate at any cost. Within the conciliation procedure a process of exchange has developed where both sides are open to make concessions, but at a price that differs according to each set of negotiations (Shackleton 1999, p. 331). The procedure has evolved significantly since its introduction by the Maastricht Treaty, where a lot was not indite down and even the basic procedural issues were not always clear.Considering the problems of conciliation, the so-called trialogue meetings are of great significance during its preparation. These sessions, nei ther the Treaty nor the EP Rules of Procedure, have been formed to an extent under the motto necessity is the mother of invention. They were answer back to the gap left in the Treaty between the Councils flake reading and convention of the conciliation committee. The Treaty provisions do not wait what, should happen after the Council has given its view on the EPs second-reading amendments and before the delegations meet in the conciliation committee. There were occasional bilateral contacts between Council and EP during the first year and a half after the Maastricht Treaty came into effect, but no structured dialogue. As a result both institutions seek to find compromises in a room, which could hold over 100 persons. unaccompanied in the second half year after the Treaty came into effect was the conclusion finally drawn that this was not an efficient forum for institutional dialogue and that conciliation needed to be prepared by a smaller group (Shackleton 1999, p. 333). In lig ht of the smaller number of persons taking part in trialogues, namely the vice-president concerned the chairman of the responsible EP committee and the rapporteur At the level of the trialogue and only have to be rubber-stamped in conciliation a large percentage polemic issue is already solved. The starry-eyed function of the trialogue is illustrated by the directive on end of vehicle life. At second reading the EP adopted a total of 32 amendments. In a series of trialogue meetings, compromises were reached regarding a considerable number of amendmentsStudy conducted on the effect the co-decision procedure has on the EP committees has shown that co-decision has led to a structural preoccupancy of the bulk of the work load on only three out of 20 Permanent Committees. The three committees dealt with the majority of the draft legal acts submitted under co-decision were (Christine Neuhold, 2001) Committee on the Environment (36.7 %) Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs an d industrial Policy (25.9 %) Committee on Legal Affairs (16.9 %). As regards the amount of time needed to conclude a co-decision procedure, the analysis reflects that the Committee on the Environment with the heaviest co-decision burden of all committees stabilized the amount of time required for adoption. The Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs and Industrial Policy and the Committee on Legal Affairs have even reduced the time needed for the adoption of legislative acts considerably since co-decision was introduced in 1993 (Maurer 1999, p. 29). Role of EP committees within the death penalty processOne more significant issue is the process of implementing legislation. In the system of comitology, EP committees play only a marginal role. Comitology is a short-hand term for the process by which certain powers of implementation are delegated to the Commission. The comitology committees are composed of representatives of part State governments and as such(prenominal) are no t democratically elected (Bradley 1997). Since installation of the first comitology committees, the EP has put forward far-reaching demands as regards its involvement in the comitology system. Translating them into political science terms, they could be summarised in the following manner (Hix 2000) clear definition of legislative and executive matters so that the executive authority would be strictly responsible for implementing measures when implementing acts have been adopted by way of co-decision in the legislative process, the EP should be put on an equal footing with the governments of the Member States limitation of the executive powers of the Member State governments (at least to a certain extent) the right of the EP to examine all draft implementing acts before they are adopted with the implementation timetable the right of the EP to veto legislation before it is implemented.Connection to EU citizens the problem of accountability and responsibilityThe concept of accounta bility for this study is defined in two ways primary, to be responsible is seen to be in a position of stewardship and therefrom to be called to answer questions about ones activities and administration. This is very much connected to ensuring a certain degree of openness and transparency within the decision making process. Choices and debates have to be broken down in such a way that citizens are able to understand them and have a certain degree of insight into decision-making processes. Second, to be responsible is perceived as being censurable or dismissible (Bealey 1999, p. 2 Lord 1998). Because of the fact that they are directly elected, the members of the EP are directly accountable to their electorate. Though, the electoral procedures of the EP are indefinite as regards the principle of political equality. Concerning accountability, it is also doubtful whether electors are adequately informed about the EPs activities, and they seem to have insufficient motivation to monit or the EP by participating in elections the average turnout of 49 % in the 1999 EP elections speaks for itself(Christine Neuhold, 2001).The complex EU decision-making procedures are not transparent and sometimes rather backbreaking to describe and understand, when the process reached by a majority. European parties be unsuccessful to organize dependable factions and the relationships between the EP and other EU institutions, specially the Council, are difficult to comprehend. One of the problems the EP is presently facing is that the EP does not have the authority of a legislature. As a co-legislator together with the Council, it cannot be held accountable for decisions it makes on its own (Benz 2000, p. 16). Additionally, there is no European government that can be held accountable to the EP. The EP has to give the rights of its vote of approval to the Commission and to the Commission President. By vote of censure, it can also force the entire Commission to resign. The EP hence h as the power to vote the Commission out of office. Though, it is not the EP but the European Council that selects the President and the members of the Commission. In consequence the composition of the executive is not based on the results of European elections. Changes to the Treaties do not have to be ratified by the EP, nor are members of the EP present at Intergovernmental Conferences held with the aim of Treaty reform (Raunio 2000, p. 231). By this study it has been reflected, complex forms of inter-institutional bargaining make it difficult to pinpoint what decisions were taken by whom. Main decisions are taken in smaller groups such as the trialogue that abide for the achievement of consensus with other institutional actors such as the Council. However, the conclusion of complex deals obscures who has won or lost on particular issues. The circumstances is problematical by the fact that MEPs are like members of any national parliament confronted with a fundamental date of rol es, specifically that of the competent co-legislator versus the representative of the interests of the people who elected him/her. The previous requires expertness and knowledge and complicated negotiations within the committee and with representatives of the EU institutions. The concluding requires changeless contact with the EU citizens. The burden of committee work will require more time and effort of MEPs, making it more difficult to tend to the interests of the potential voter With the growth in the EPs legislative tasks. Concluding notesThe echt authority of the EP is at least partly based on the work of its committees. In shaping EU legislation they play a vital role. This becomes noticeable when taking a final look at what EP committees achieveOperation of economization From an improved familiarity with the subject, EP committees make processing of a growing workload possible and benefit. To cope with its increasing legislative workload, committees play a vital role in th e EPs quest. This improved burden for committees has not led to a slowing down of the decision-making process. Information acquisition This improved familiarity of committee members with particular issues leads to improved specialization, thereby increase the confidence of non-committee members in the work of the committee. It has found that the EP committees constitute an important arena for the communication of interests. MEPs can use a rising pool of expertise from members of the Committee Secretariat on the one hand and on the other hand representatives of interests groups or NGOs.Co-ordination Committee members are selected on a cross-party basis and through different means throughout the political groups, procedural rules, and bargaining. The political groups within the EP have found different means to maximize their influence within committees, for instance by appointing shadow rapporteurs and group co-ordinators. Committees however provide an arena for the political groups to deliberate in order to find the necessary majorities, something not possible in plenary sessions. Input of smaller political groups committee membership provides a documentary chance for representatives of smaller political groups in certain instances for example the super acid/EFA to take part in the shaping of legislation, by appointing the rapporteur for example. Consensus-building The EP committee bodily structure can give to consensus-building by providing an arena for detailed deliberation, which is not possible in plenary. It has found that divisions in committees are very issue-specific, and it must be noted that the committee lead very often plays an integrative role. furtherance Committee meetings are usually open to the public and also the media. Committees permit members and committee chairs in particular to make publicity, at least when controversial topics such as the BSE crisis are on the agenda. Beyond this categorization, this provides an overview of how EP c ommittees interlock rather more normative, conclusions. The Standing Committees and the EP operate in a very different environment than the committees in national parliaments, a key rest being the lack of a European government directly accountable to the EP and the unique forms of decision-making in the multi-level system of European governance. In this process of relations with other EU institutions, remarkably the Council and the Commission, the EP committees play a vital role. The EPs work environment brings order and structure by the committee-based division of labor.Committees present force out and structural resources which build up the negotiating position of the EP vis--vis the Council, for instance in the co-decision process. live players in committees for example group co-ordinators, chairmen and rapporteurs not only contribute to cohesiveness and coherence within committees, but play a very important role in finding useful solutions to problems, so raising the commit tees issue significantly. It has found that key players are often appointed due to their expertise in the particular policy area, which is sometimes gained throughout work within the industry previous to their parliamentary career. This and the fact that they can use a growing pool of expertise enhances their standing vis--vis other institutions. It is also found that political actors who have acquired experience with these very specific forms of inter-institutional negotiations are selected to deal with co-decision, thus contributing to the level of trust and coherence, particularly during conciliation. By the negotiations this is illustrated which dealt with the SOCRATES programme, the revision of the directive on open network provisions regarding voice telephone where the rapporteur was re-appointed, and the Fifth Framework Programme. Committees enlarge accountability of the EP as much as their meetings are usually open to the public and committee documents for instance draft re ports are rather freely available. By meeting visiting groups and outlay a large part of the working week in their constituencies, i.e. Member States Committee members also try to build up the link to EU citizens. Moreover committees enable effective communication of relevant (citizen) interests to those involved in the process of governance. Contact with lobbyists has normally become part of the daily origin of committee members. In spite of these positive aspects, EP committees can do pocket-sized to alleviate general structural deficits regarding accountability and legitimacy within the multi-level system, such as the lack of a European government, which is directly accountable to the EP.

Energy Storage Systems for Advanced Power Applications

vitality computer transshipment center Systems for move on Power ApplicationsAbstractThe fol humbleing assignment contains the resultic of source transmitting governing dusts for finishshore wind farms. The three chief(prenominal) types of transmittance discussed is Line Commutated Converters, potentiality Sourced Converters and High Voltage Alternating Current. Introduction electrical Energy storehouse technology is proficient in coping with key characteristics of electrical susceptibility. One indication is its ability to hourly vary in demand and price. Soon electrical readiness storage go out pay off essential in bringing relevant markets together to use more renewable susceptibility, to accomplish clinical depression CO2 levels for bright GridsElectrical Energy storehouse has three main objectives. These be Electrical Energy Storage lowers electricity costs by harvesting electricity attained during off-peak times.To improve dependability of power sup plies. Electrical Energy Storage consumers during network failures. For example, during natural disasters.To maintain and improve power quality, frequency and voltage.In general, the definition of Smart Grid is to modernise the electricity grid. It involves all aspects related to the electrical placement between any point, from coevals to expending. Now that Smart grid technology has been implemented the grid has become more flexible and interactive and gives immediate feedback. The Smart Grid will provide information concerning the price of electricity and the state the power system basin be exchanged between electricity production and consumption to realise a more efficient and reliable power sumElectrical Energy storage is significant in the development of Smart Grid.Types of Energy Storage and FeaturesElectrical Energy Storage Classification To secern electrical push button storage systems the sort of energy used must be considered. In figure one below the storage techn ologies ar categorised into mechanical, electromechanical, chemical, electrical and thermic energy storage systems. Secondary energy carriers such as, atomic number 1 and synthetic natural ordnance argon operated to throw in electrical energy via electrolysis of water to create hydrogen and methane. Fuel cells oxidises hydrogen or methane to produce electricity. The combination of the electrolysis fuel cell procedure is an electrochemical energy storage system. However, both gases are multi-purpose energy carriers. For example, the electricity can be produced in a gas or steam turbine. Thus, they are categorised as chemical energy storage systems. Thermal energy storage systems are also considered. Most thermal energy systems are not the direct input to storage systems. However, using the help of thermal energy storage the energy from renewable energy sources can be streng thused, which allows electricity to be produced on demand. Hot molten salts in arduous solar power plants and the storage of heat in flavourless standard pressure plants using an adiabatic process to achieve efficiency is an example.Mechanical Storage SystemsPumped hydroelectric, compressed air energy storage and flywheel energy storage are the most popular mechanical storage systems used.Pumped Hydro StoragePumped hydro storage technology uses to reservoirs at different altitudes. At off peak times water from the bottom reservoir is pumped to the top reservoir. This is can be referred to as charging. Once electrical energy is take in water from the top reservoir flows back down to the bottom reservoir, which in turn powers turbines positioned between the top and bottom reservoir. The turbines are connected to generators to therefore produce electricity. This is known as discharging. Pumped hydro relies on environmental locations. For luxuriously and low reservoirs dams, flooded mine shafts, other underground cavities and the open sea are suitable locations to construct a pumped h ydro energy system plant. Currently in the UK there is one pumped hydro station fixed in Dinorwg in North Wales. This is the power station depicted in figure two below.Discharge time periods can last up to several hours to a few days. This depends on the size of the plant. They are seventy to eighty-five per cent efficient.Some advantages of pumped hydro technology is the long animation and practicability unlimited cycle stability of the installation. Disadvantages are its dependency on topographical conditions and large land area used.Compressed Air Energy StorageCompressed air technology is used as a storage means due to its obtainability. Air is compressed and kept in underground structures or above ground systems of vessels or pipes. Natural gas is then mixed with the compressed air and burned, which is expanded in specialize gas turbines. Usual underground storage system locations are caverns, aquifers or abandoned mines. This process is illustrated in figure three below. He at cannot be released during compression dissipation as it will cool while in storage. The air needs to be reheated before expansion in the turbine. This is called diabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage. This method gives low round turn on efficiencies of less than fifty per cent. This system is well established with plants having lofty reliability and are proficient at starting without extraneous power.The main advantages of compressed air energy storage are its large capacity. The disadvantages the technology develops is low round trip efficiency and location restriction.Flywheel Energy StorageFlywheel energy storage generates energy using a rotating cylinder and stores its energy in an accelerated rotor coil. The flywheel is made up of a rotating body/cylinder indoors a compartment. There are also bearing and a transmission device. The electrical energy is generated by the flywheel by keeping the rotation of the body at a constant speed. The higher the speed the more energy st ored. To function the flywheel is electrically supplied by a transmission device. If the speed reduces then electricity my by gathered from the system by the transmission device. The rotor of the flywheel is made out of high strength carbon filaments. These are suspend by magnetic bearings. The rotor can reach speeds of twenty cardinal to over fifty thousand revs per minute in a nullity enclosure.The advantages of using flywheels enables a long-life span, little maintenance, high power absorption uses environmentally inert material and has excellent cycle stability. The disadvantages to flywheels have high levels of discharge to the resistance in the air and bearing losses. They also hold from low current efficiency.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Effect of Technology on Social Interaction

Effect of Technology on Social InteractionINTRODUCTIONSince the presence of engineering science, clements carry unheeded themselves and each other. Technology, organized with commerce, which has relaxly raided humans and their natural abilities and removed their capabilities. Today, to a capitaler extent an(prenominal) of us bargain with ourselves in depressed, alienated, drug addicts, stressed out, exhausted, poor health, isolated, alcoholics, and fat and overworked. We ar spending a lesser amount of beat unitedly in active face-to-face interaction and chat with our families, neighbors, colleagues and friends, and to a greater extent(prenominal) time at working, driving cars, drinking, eating, being online on the computer, direct text messages and emails consuming, eating, observation TV. We have endorsed this situation to change and have not been capable, to beat the forcefulness to repel. We have given up so much in parley for the magnificence and never-ending p rogress of science, commerce and technology. But we have elegant or no time for an insufficient kind statement with a friend or a neighbor or simply another(prenominal) human being whose conduit we cross throughout our busy days. This condition is in extensive need of our genuine wisdom and attention in coiffe to find clarifications for more congruence, health for human beings everywhere and wellness, and also to rear a balance among our habit of technology and the time we employ in genial interaction and conversation with others.CURRENT SITUATIONIt is an undeniable accompaniment that the contemporary technologies, particularly the invention of the internet, has transfigured the way sight live, work,, entertain and, communicate. To tweet with, the online messages and parley alikels such as emails, MSN messenger and teleconference software have enabled the contacts of mutu every(prenominal)y the loved ones in distant place and associates working in another region.However, i t is not unusual to see that news reporting unendingly reports on the disadvantageous resultant of these fluctuations in telecommunication. Firstly, misusing internet and ignoring the real communication can lead to sociable separation and segregation. Researches disclose that people, who spend their too much time at the computer cafes, tend to have complications when communicating and interacting with people in the actual world. Furthermore, many family actions which normally help lace up the family bonds cannot be merely replaced by online conversation.Generally, I personally believe that scientific and technological development has transformed our mode of communication in an approving and encouraging way, in terms of the expediency, time-efficiency and convenient. However, taken all the above say negative inspirations into contemplation, we do need to keep poise between the rate of flow we employ on line and in actual and real world. correct OF FACE TO FACE CONVERSATIONWe ar e now in the set of another daunting revolution, which is the Technological regeneration, having a very prodigious effect on the oral word and on societies and their relatives with each other. Only 50 years ago, the computer have the appearance _or_ semblanceed on the scene. Its arrival and development is instigating the Technological Revolution to interchange ahead at supersonic speed and rapidity as we move profounder into the 21st century. We are forfeiting a very high valuate to have all these machineries and technologies at our disposal. It is crucial that we evaluate and analyze this situation.Multi-tasking is instigating us to be easily abstracted and diverted. Despite all the machines and technologies for easy interaction and communication with each other, we often sense socially isolated and lone(prenominal) because most of our acquaintances and contacts are by machines and technology, not close sincere brio sentence human acquaintances.SOLUTION TO THIS HORRIBLE SITU ATIONIn order for us to move forward to the future, it is necessary and essential to go back to the and then(prenominal) and history, because we have elapsed, left behind, and unrestricted an essential percentage that we want so that we can aware about our lives more effusively and with more sympathy. That component is our humanity. We need to get up and observe first what has transpired to us and then to guise deep into past to see what ensued to our ancestors, who, over the millenniums, had to undergo the slow procedure of losing their capabilities and of seeing the deterioration of living face-to-face social interactions and conversation as technology has developed, appeared and developed. All of us have been detached of many of our inherited abilities and of other capabilities that we have assimilated during our lives. The television, media and particularly advertising have influenced us that electronic or written communication is someway better and more precise than our own living spoken statement. We have been persuaded that somehow inspecting smell on a screen is more exciting and interesting than corporal our own lives. We have become observers, immobile, consumers and seated, who always observers of what we need somewhat clear from ourselves. We have vanished confidence in our institutions, feelings, and abilities, and in our amusing inner resources that we unless know to find or how to exist. It is untainted that we need to re-become contestants in life and not just spectators and observers. By concerning with each other, we could be able to cross this goal.There are elucidations to ease up this condition, which we need to contemplate seriously. legion(predicate) observers and philosophers of life have given us significant messages as to how to accomplish this assignment. Communicating with each other can mean bartering concepts about positivist and creative action we can take in mandate to drive this modern imperative that is determining us into spectators, users of machines, consumers and non-stop workers.Today, many of us move over a marvelous amount of our time placed in movement of a TV or Computer screen or sending messages and emails to each other. It is unblemished that we need to be in touch with everyone, yet most of the period our acquaintances are by machine and technologies not by actual life living face-to-face interaction. Before all the technology and machines evolved, people certainly used to employ more time together and as a consequence they were happier and social relations were flatter and more harmonious.IMPORTANCE OF INTER-CULTURAL COMMUNICATIONToday, we come into interaction regularly with other people not only from our own society and country but from all over the sphere and of all eternities and from altered walks of life, political, and religious opinions. This condition requires great sympathy, tolerance, sensitivity and understanding. Intercultural communication assistances can help us to communicate more harmoniously and smoothly with people on a face-to-face germ with ease and without arguments or misunderstanding. We need to seek a profounder and more compassionate understanding of the human knowledge of living a life on this earth and in our world. It can be very obliging to domesticise more familiarity of the many cultures and societies of our world, their past and histories, their characteristics and geographies, and their current states.ENCOURAGING HOSPITALITY quite OF HOSTALITYPeople will communicate with others if they pass smiles and have a warm expression and appearance. A cold, inimical facial appearance does not walk conversation communication or social interface. Therefore another elucidation to keeping face-to-face conversation and sociability thriving is to encourage and and friendly, pleasant and gracious relations, understanding, kindness, politeness, tolerance, and respect between human beings, irrespective of their age, race, national ity, social backgrounds, and the way of life, the language they express, their facial appearances, religious beliefs and dogmas, or other points of view. If we answer this mode of behavior, others will follow.In normal conditions, friendly association should find between and among human. After all, we have a great transaction in common with everyone. For instance, we all have two arms, two legs, a head, and a body, and we all breathe, sleep, eat, and have a heart that is continuously beating. We all portion out the knowledge and information that we are not on this world constantly and that we will consent here with nonentity in our hands. So it would seem impeccably reasonable for us to contemplate talking, conversing, communicating and interacting with our corresponding human beings more often and in a friendly and warm manner whenever the occasion presents itself while spending, at work, at shopping, at school, in a bus or road, at the airport, anywhere and everywhere, we ofte n we ignore and stave off each other. So many chances to meet motivating people are conceded by.CONCLUSIONSince, thanks to the growth of e-commerce, people can accomplish a variety of actions, such as booking flights and accommodations, purchasing material ranging from cars to clothing, or even dating a foreigner, without treading out own house. Most prominently, the social links such as the Facebook has even fabricated an entire cybernetic world for us.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Comparison of Stakeholder Theories

Comparison of Stakeholder TheoriesComp be and contrast stakeholder and stockholder theories. Discuss how immanently relates to ethics and regulation.The shareholder possibleness was described initi whollyy by Milton Friedman and it states the conventional view that the maximisation of financial value for shareholders is the ultimate goal of the personal credit line (Mansell, 2013). The central idiom of shareholder guess implies that long-term cash surpluses growth shareholder value (Rausch, 2011).Smith (2003), writes describing some of the mis planions regarding Shareholder theory clarify that the increase of bread is clearly restrained by legality. Additionally, there exists the position that under shareholder theory, charitable donations are discouraged as they would straightaway reduce profits up to now they are supported within the constraints of operational capital.Stakeholder theory was described initially by Edward Freeman and it states that a go with has a dut y of certificate of indebtedness to an extended group described as stakeholders. Stakeholders include all individuals which may be affected by the activities of the beau monde for example shareholders, employees, customers, and competitors. consort to Kaler (2006), stakeholder theory has two main ethical functions-firstly, it proposes distributive fairness within a capitalist framework, by distribution of profits to non-shareholder interests as opposed to the shareholders only, and secondly it promotes the concept of bodily social responsibility which produces ethical pressure for companies to adopt obligations to society that transcend shareholder appeasement. Stakeholder theory has gained popularity in light of recent corporate scandals (Reynolds et al, 2006).According to Smith (2003) the central distinction between shareholder and stakeholder theory is that stakeholder theory stresses that stakeholder interests are considered blush if profits are diminished as a significanc e however as all interests are represented and as this includes the shareholders, there is passive a requirement to show a profit without which the business would fail.According to Mansell (2013), it is possible for an organization to maintain and uphold the ethical principles, described in the shareholder theory modelling, whilst simultaneously upholding those described in the stakeholder theory model by modifying the traditional credo to extend the tenet regarding sole stakeholder direction being maximization of shareholder profit. This is achieved by questioning if the concept of corporate duty to achieve happiness of any non-shareholder contravenes shareholder theory. Mansell maintains that the original shareholder theory is effectively outdated and that his modifications would allow both theories to coexist.2. List fin normative ethical theories and provide a oneness-paragraph summary of each. How are they convertible? Different? You may choose from the following virtue et hics, deontology, consequentialism, welfarism, egoism, relational ethics, social function ethics, and pragmatic ethics.Deontological theory is determined by the categorical imperative and states that one should act only on axioms which can be think to be universal laws of nature and to treat humanity in an individual as the end and not the means. Thus ethical behaviour is based on intent.The virtue approach considers virtuous behaviour such as honesty, kindness, and generosity. When look at behaviour from an ethical perspective the question is asked are these actions meditative of virtuous behaviour and is it representative of the type of business the bank aspires to. This is identical to deontological theory from the perspective in that its characteristics are intentional.According to Melchert (2006), consequentialism is a utilitarian moral philosophy in which actions are categorized as virtuously acceptable or unacceptable according to their consequences. This theory opposes Deontological theory in that the deontological approach is to judge according to the intention of the individual rather than the consequence of the action whereas the action in consequentialism is absolute.According to Gravel and Moyes (2013), welfarism describes a telephone number of normative approaches which rank social states based upon the distribution of welfare levels. An strand example of one of these approaches is utilitarianism, Utilitarianism has its roots in early Greek philosophers who reasoned that the best life is one that causes the least amount of suffering. Utilitarian theory states the principle focus is maximizing public-service corporation. In the field of business ethics, utility equates to the increase in happiness with the reduction of suffering.Ethical egoism is a good deal described as the traditional business model (Debeljak and Krkac, 2008) who debated that opposing the concept of Friedman that the only goal in business is the generation of profit, th ere are ethics in business namely egoistic business ethics. As is the case in business and other interests, additional factors are inseparable besides self-seeking such as the right to exercise immunity of choice and continuous concern. Self-interest can only be achieved if all conditions are met therefore if the individual maintains the conditions for themselves, they are met for all.ReferencesDebeljak, J., Krkac, K. (2008). Me, myself I practical egoism, selfishness, self-interest and business ethics. Social Responsibility Journal Bingley4.1/2 (2008) 217-227.Gravel, N., Moyes, P. (2013). Utilitarianism or welfarism does it advert a difference? Social Choice and Welfare Heidelberg40.2 (Feb 2013) 529-551.Mansell, S. (2013) Shareholder theory and Kants duty of beneficence. Journal of Business Ethics JBE Dordrecht117.3 (Oct 2013) 583-599.Melchert, N. (2007). The great conversation a historical introduction to philosophy (5th Edition). New York Oxford University Press.Rausch, A. ( 2011). Reconstruction of decision-making behavior in shareholder and stakeholder theory implications for management accounting systems. Review of Managerial wisdom Heidelberg5.2-3 (Jul 2011) 137-169.Smith, H. (2003). The shareholders vs. stakeholders Debate. Retrieved March 18, 2017, from http//sloanreview.mit.edu/article/the-shareholders-vs-stakeholders-debate/

Impact of Globalization on the Environment

Imp propel of Globalization on the Environment benignant laundry faces some desperate challenges to replenish for what has been d angiotensin-converting enzyme by our extension in the name of macrocosmwideizations. The definition of our in this context is to eloquently try that the push withcome of orbiculateization today was the result of the comprehensiveness of all gracious race and our here refers to every animated human beingness on this earth who contributes to both the positive and negative forbiddencomes of globoseization. According to Pierik and Werner, the all-inclusiveness (2010, p. 2) applies to every living human being in general and the access to basic correctly ons should in deal manner be equally available to every individual on this earth. For instance, right to clean air or clean water. In similar fashion, oecumenicals present do that as citizens of the populace, we should conjointly tackle both the positive and negative impacts of globalizati on. As documented by Pogge in World P everywherety and human Rights, every human being has a global stature as the ultimate unit of moral concern (2002, p. 169). However, in the era of globalisation, this is non always the case. The environsal problems dedicate give-up the ghost a pressing cut down ofttimes relating it to the causal arrange of globalisation contributed by the human activities.As state of matterd by mol in Globalization and Environmental Re variation, the environmental repercussions argon oft related to the market demand and supply, or in homogeneous manner widely known as Global Capitalism (2001, p. 71). Global capitalist economy is no external to the global consumptions and frugal end product which soberly hampers the stableness of the environment. So, this boils down to one oral sex, what impacts does globalisation really has on the environment? To let with, this essay get out discuss about the implications of globalisation towards the general society. It too argues on the question of distribution equality of environmental risks and followed by the interchange on the ramification of global heating plant caused by the processes of globalisation. The second snap off then details on how globalisation has lead to the harmonisation of environmental practices among multinational Corporations (TNCs) and the last part will then entail on the development of global environmental governance discourses.Is Globalisation eco-friendly?In rate to the meat of global capitalism, it has certainly induced or in a bold way of saying it, it has messed up the entire climate carcass and the environment respectively. Global warming is no longer a foreign term to approximately of us and this issue has been overly argued that the economic globalisation is partly behind this which has brought us to where we atomic number 18 now. In similarity to the act of global capitalists, it boils down to one question, is there an equal distribution of risks relating to environmental threats crossways the eyeball and argon the responsibilities on emitting Green House Gases (GHGs) being shared equally by every state in the military man? As argued by Mol (2001 p. 79), it is hard to escape from the environmental threats in a highly-globalised era and it is merely im come-at-able to do so. A nonher disciple give care Gray suggests that developed countries conserve their environments by moving their productions to the underdeveloped humankind where environmental regulations on Multi-national corporations (MNCs) are to a greater extent(prenominal) slack and thus, export their pollutions to the run countries (Gray cited in Lofdahl, 2002, p. 9). Hence, making it one of the negative impacts of globalisation. In this case, the environmental risks are non being shared equally nor fair as the win for few are often a dispense for many a(prenominal) others. As a cosmopolitan, being equally fair is the way to do it and in a perfe ct human, sharing environmental risks should be borne non lone(prenominal) by states but as well as transnational actors across the dry belt down and putting effort in conserving the environment in any possible way of life. This may sound superficial for some of us, but a cosmopolitan assimilator analogous David Heater himself excessively share the same take as he had documented in his book, World Citizenshipwhen possible, participate in schemes for positive conservation and cleansing and the understanding that the to the highest degree deleterious results of environmental degradation behind rarely be contained within boundaries of the state where the depleting or polluting processes originate (2002, p. 123).Having said that, to check an equal distribution of environmental risks among nation states and global actors in the real world is really difficult. The question on whether or not the risks are equitably distributed similarly depends on some bodies in the global governance, for instance, transnational actors like the MNCs or TNCs. thither has been debates about transnational corporations for not acquiring feasible (sustainable) production methods and such(prenominal) practices has been widely lauded by most business people across the globe. These unsustainable practices have contributed harm towards the environment both in the operating countries and its neighbouring countries respectively. To top it all, these activities are being operated mostly in the developing nations. Why is that? Is developing nations a loopy target for transnational corporations to conduct their unethical business avocation executions? In answering this question, according to Daly and Cobb, one of the many reasons for the favour of operating in most developing countries is due to its weak local trading system and the laid-back regulations on transnational corporations. In this respect, the issue on dish outs and environmental problems could be explained in a wider context involving the WTO (World Trade Organisation) or formerly known as GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). Technically, the formation of globalisation itself was partly moulded by the GATT or WTO in making the world a freer trading ground by opening the markets everywhere across the globe (Baylis et al, 2014, p. 346). According to liberal economists in respect to WTOs trade policies, they argued that the result form pollutions due to the trade could be treated as part of the production cost of producing the goods, and hence, supporting their claim that it could be favourable towards the environment as resources will be habituated in a more in rip(p) manner (Baylis et al, 2014). However, one could contest that its equitability remains questionable. As a money-making organisation, this is often seen as a benefit to further put up their companies in quest more profits out the production despite for its unsustainable practices in these countries (Daly and Cobb c ited in Mol, 2001, p. 83). For instance, the tragic Bhopal incident on December 1984 was the result of unsustainable practices do by a Transnational Corporation. It killed more than fifteen pace people and somewhat more than two hundred fifty thousand people were hurt due the pipes leakage mishap releasing over forty thousand tons of toxic gases to Bhopals open air (Fortun, 2009). Bhopal was obviously a soft target for a multi-national corporation like the Union Carbide. Bhopal region were seen to be backward in terms of development, but due to its prominent pickle for easy transportation access, it make Bhopal to be an ideal location for the operation (Fortun, 2009). Put simply, Bhopal incident is just one of the examples of an unequitable distribution of environmental risks, not only to the population of Bhopal region, but the result from the mishap has an indirect effect in contributing to transboundary pollution and thereby ultimately, summation the GHGs firing train on a global scale. In short, every discharge made everywhere roughly the world will be in the expense of every living things on earth including, human, our time to come generations to be, and even biodiversity.Secondly, its responsibility for the environmental damages and severe climate change extraly on the increase of GHG emissions since the industrial revolution era. Environmental agencies like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) believes that the cause for the environmental degradation or global warming is caused by the increasing do of carbon dioxide (carbonic acid gas) emissions from the result of the increasing reduce of human activity over the past decades (Huwart and Verdier, 2013, p. 112). Many argues that globalisation is partly responsible for the environmental issues that we are currently facing which is caused by the increase in industrial productions and surging amount of international trade deals due to massive global consumption. That said, sever al(prenominal) human-induced activities that contributes to the surging emission amount of CO2 are mainly from transportation, global capitalist activities (mainly on industrial activity and consumption) and deforestation. According to Huwart and Verdier (2013), transportation takes a big chunk of the CO2 emission aim to the atmosphere. For instance, roughly about nine percent of the GHG emission is from the aviation sector and boilersuit, approximately about eighty-six percent increase of GHG emission from the aviation sector from 1990 to 2004 (Huwart and Verdier, 2013, p. 113). Nonetheless, aviation industry is one of the most profitable industries now. According to internationalistic Civil Aviation organization (ICAO, 2016), the overall amount of CO2 emission for India aviation industry was roughly roughly 16.4 one million million million tonnes as of 2014. On that note, between 2005 to 2007, the local airline companies have puted about five hundred aeroplanes due to the ris ing chassis of passengers travelling locally and internationally (Huwart and Verdier, 2013, p. 113). Put simply, the dilemma between economic growth and pollution is never ending, it is an unprecedented loop. So long as there is consumption, we are inevitably bounded to experience global warming. In relation to the issue on global warming, as Huwart and Verdier documented in Economic Globalisation, Globalisation is often an ally of the mountain rangesaw (2013, p. 114). Huwart and Verdier (2013) argues that transportation is not just the only source of pollution, other human activities such as deforestation also contributes towards the gradual increase of GHG emissions over the past decades. This is no(prenominal) other due to the increase in consumption percentage globally and it pushes mass production of goods in order to cater the market demand. For example, as of 2003, soy exports by the Brazilians to China was approximately around six million tonnes. Deforestation of lands in some parts of Brazil has enabled them to bewilder more soy to cater China market. The rule is simple, more soy export, more rainforest is being turned into farmland (Huwart and Verdier, 2013). All of these activities has a chain effect which contributes to global warming. Besides, global warming is one of the reasons for the increasing number in inborn calamity such as increase in sea water aim causing floods and also hurricanes. For instance, low-lying island states that only lies about three metres above sea level will be in jeopardy, countries such as, Tuvalu, Palau, Maldives and other low-lying states will be severely affected (Ashe, Lierop and Cherian, 1999). Considering that these small island states play a very little place in global pollution and this boils down to one question, could this also be a case of unequitable distribution of environmental risk? Looking at it in a different perspective, a realist or a sceptic would perceive it as an equal loss or gain. For i nstance, as pointed out by Ritzer (2010, p. 337), the North is more concerned on the issue of global warming, meanwhile the South is heavily encumbered with other pressing issues like HIV, famine and Malaria. So, is this a fair game?Mass migration is also often discussed in unearthing the several effects from the result of global warming. Its side effect within itself has caused several problems and it will be catastrophic to the human race in many age to come. In this respect, the rising sea level is one of the products of global warming. Scientifically, this is due to the rapid melting of ice sheets end-to-end the world which is caused by a rapid increase in temperature. For instance, it is anticipate that there will be a rise in sea level globally by twenty-three feet if the ice in Greenland were to be completely melted and some other seventeen-foot rise on sea level if the ice in the Antarctica were to be ruptured in a similar manner. Hence, that make it up to forty feet inc rease in sea level in total. It goes without saying if this happens, it would be a massive calamity on a global scale and it could easily wipe out the entire low-lying states and the small island nations in a glimpse (Ritzer, 2010, p. 345). This is not a current phenomenon, temperature has been increasing and the rise in sea level is expect to be quicker than previously forecasted putting the small island and low-lying states in a most vulnerable position (Collins Rudolph cited in Ritzer, 2010). In many cases, inwrought disasters like floods, droughts or even storm could be a favourable opportunity for businesses out there. As stated by Klein in This Changes Everything, natural disaster could open doors to business opportunities in particular in the reclamation of newfangled houses and infrastructures like in New Jersey right after the superstorm blond died down. Or, the surge in numbers of patent for genetically engineered seeds that withstands extreme bear conditions is al so seen as business opportunity by big corporations like Monsanto and Syngenta (2015, p. 9). None of these are much of a surprise for us as this is rather a norm for most capitalists to act in such manner. That said, natural disasters are often seen as an opportunity, making money out of ones agony. Referring to the earlier statement, could this also be the case for the small island nations if the entire land is no longer inhabitable? Charging each and every individual from these nations for a new place to stay when the sea level hits exactly at three feet above the ground? The idea behind this is that, charging would not sack up any of these problems. The issues on global warming is very labyrinthian that it is matching with the well-being of the world society. For instance, looking at the small island nations and low-lying states circumstances, it is expected to be about 60 million people will compose refugees if sea level were to rise above three feet (Ritzer, 2010, p. 347). The potential every which way from the migration would be a nightmare for the world society and the likely effect from this would be an increase in crime rate, surging number in poverty, food scarcity and security issues as the world will become more borderless. Are we ready for this? Should this happen, this will become a world problem as catastrophe as such is irreversible. Hence, preventing or retardation down global warming would be the best solution to this.On the other side of this coin, thanks to globalisation for leading us to a world without border in a sense where creating awareness on global warming and other environmental issues are easier now than it was 50 years ago, despite for the damages that it has done over these years. Put simply, it is a way forward and it could be a way out for the citizens of the world. As stated by Mol in Globalization and environmental recoverGlobalization can trigger the harmonization of national environmental practices, regimes, and sta ndards, produce new institutional arrangements at a supra-national level, transfer environmental technologies, focusing concepts, and organizational models, and accelerate the exchange of environmental information around the world (2001, p. 96).In a way, globalisation had already created a platform in addressing the issues on environment. That said, a bodied effort is needed in order to achieve certain objectives on creating a sustainable environment and a greener economic growth. As argued by Mol (2001), globalisation has led to the harmonisation of environmental practices among the key drivers on the global market, i.e. transnational corporations. As one of the key drivers in the global scene, their position is quite prominent which enables them to make the environmental improvements and promoting best practice to their consumers and as well as to their suppliers. Transnational corporations are seen to be as a strong actor in the global governance especially in the transmission of new engine room and producing influential advertisements (Choucri, 1991). Choucri (1991) also stated that transnational corporations will be expedient in shaping up new means of doing business and trades in the most sustainable way as possible. However, issues on environmental reformation is not a one man show, it is rather a collective initiative from other responsible parties as well. In light of this, Mol (2001) also argues that efforts on environmental harmonisation practices by transnational actors would not have been possible without the help of few driving ciphers like the International Standard Organisation (ISO), environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), international regulatory bodies and even exoteric pressure. These underlying has been a push factor for some, not all, TNCs everywhere around the globe. Some international standards were created cohesively with the harmonisation of environmental practices for manufacturing purposes, namely, the ISO 14000 series (Mol, 2001, p. 99). Having said that, this build of initiatives help to reduce unsustainable manufacturing methods and act as one of the triggering tools towards a greener means of production across TNCs. But then again, having ISO alone will not secure the future of the environmental problems that we are currently facing because it acts as only a jumpstart for a greener way of manufacturing goods. On another level, globalisation could also someway create a join force or formation of positive sociable movements especially in combating the environmental challenges that are contributed by TNCs across the region. Let us take the kindly movement of the Bhopal incident survivors as an example to help explain this particular point. After the Bhopal incident, many social movements were create with regards to the unethical business practices by TNCs in the region. In this respect, the focus of these initiatives has also evolved overtime where issues on sex activity were also in tegrated in these social movements. Underpinning gender in this context, Suroopa Mukhrejee argued that the tragic Bhopal incident has put gender under the limelight where the social movements were formed and lead by the women survivors of the Bhopal incident (Mukrejee cited in Scandrett and Mukhrejee, 2011, p. 201). That said, Mukhrejee also argued that the core of the social movement was focused in addressing womens well-being which the outcome from the incident had caused several complications to womens health and body respectively. As stated by Scandrett and Mukhrejee,the experience of toxicant in the womens bodies in its disruption of menstrual cycles and gynaecological functions, abnormal births and reliant children, becomes reflected in the bodily practices of protest (2011, p. 202).Put simply, the result from the incident has somehow induced for such movement to happen allowing women to step forward and be empowered in fighting not only for womens right, but also environment al justice in their region and throughout the country. In mickle of this, I argue that the strive from these kind movements is not just skilful for the present society, but also for the future generation to come which has the right to access clean air and clean environment. After all, living in a clean environment is part of human rights as well. However, scholars like Wilfred Beckerman and Joanna Pasek believes that the unborn future generations hold no rights and do not merit to have anything out of it as they are not here to utilise these rights in present (Beckerman and Pasek cited in Pierek and warner, 2010, p. 32). On contrary, scholars like Simon Caney argued that the rights for the unborn generations will be jeopardised if such approach are not going to be taken into account now. If such right like the rights for the unborn generations were to be in placed now, the future generation would hold a beneficial moral sentiment on duties to protect and not to harm the environm ent (Caney, 2011, p. 235) and hence, shaping up a better and highly morale future society. Therefore, the current generation should be obliged to not act in a way where it will threaten the rights of the future generations.In relation to the collective efforts as mentioned earlier, there are several initiatives that has been done over the recent years in addressing the environmental issues especially on moderation of climate change. For example, the development of global environmental governance like the 1992 unify Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol in 1997, Copenhagen Accord or even the recent Paris Agreement. In general, these initiatives are recognised as an effort in spearheading the global economy towards a greener global business direction. Of course, having institutions or agencies as such does not ineluctably bring about a complete success in tackling environmental issues, but rather, it could be a game changing process for the busines ses especially the TNCs in modifying their production practices into a more sustainable method. For instance, the carbon taxation could be a powerful tool in reducing the emissions on GHGs. Businesses will be taxed on a basis of their carbon emission usage from the utilisation of fossil fuels and the aim of this instrument is to motivate businesses to remove their production methods into a more sustainable one (Ritzer, 2010, p. 356). Having said that, instruments as such would be more effective if nations from all over the world participates, especially some major polluters like the US and China. Thus, participations are also seen as a collective effort in mitigating environmental issues. several(prenominal) instruments like the carbon credit purchase and the Clean Development implement (CDM) were also introduced in Kyoto Protocol which aims to reduce GHG emissions especially from the highly industrialised developed countries (Lechner, 2009, p. 257). For instance, the essence of the CDM encourages cooperation between developed and developing countries in a sense where a conducive sustainable development could be tackle from utilising this instrument i.e. green technology transfer to developing countries. Of course, the motivating factor for these developed countries to run CDM is to ensure that their emission target could be achieved by 2012 to 5 percent below 1990 level (Ma, 2010). The idea behind this is that, globalisation has lead us to a stage where issues on global warming are seen to be a severe world problem if its go forth untreated. Also, we have witnessed growing numbers of environmental agencies and regimes over the past years and it would not have not been possible without the essence of globalisation. A scholar like Lipshutz argues that the creation of a sustainable environment could be done because human has an ability to be innovative in resolving complex issues as such (Lipschutz cited in Lechner, 2009, p. 261). On another note, Lipschut z also argues that, we cannot grow or consume our way out of the crisis (Lipschutz cited in Lechner, 2009). Referring to Lipschutz argument, it suggests, the world we are currently living in is worn out and the more we are trying extract more resources from the ecosystem, the more damages will be done to environment. For example, increasing sea level and catastrophic natural disasters as mentioned on the earlier paragraph. Therefore, it makes more sense for us to spearhead towards a greener and sustainable economy where changes in attitudes towards consumption is required, ultimately, improving the quality of the environment, social and also economic inequalities.Globalisation is it good or bad for the environment?What can be concluded based on the arguments above is that, globalisation has certainly brought us to an era where the stability of environment is at stake. The results from globalisation has lead us to another level of environmental deterioration global warming. For a fa ct, the environmental risks are not being distributed equally across the globe due to the ever-rising levels of consumption which in turn, affecting the level of GHG emissions on a global scale and as well as climate stability. Regardless of its negative consequences, the nature of interconnectedness in globalisation could also be seen a vector in bringing down the environmental issues that world is currently facing. Globalisation has open doors for green politics through the development of global environmental governance with the involvement of other bodies like Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and social movement groups which helps to elevate the awareness across the globe.As a cosmopolitan, I argue that every individual has a duty of harming with activities that is sustainable and causing less harm to the environment. Not to completely failure globalisation as it is inevitable, but rather, placing commitments on doing things in a most sustainable manner and citizens of the world should also associate themselves to environmental groups because the world of politics can be used as an agent of change. On this note, Derek Heater also argues that, encouraging appropriate activity can warp the horizons of what seems possible to leaders and to the mainstream public (Heater, 2002, p. 129). This process maybe slow, but I strongly argue that with a collective effort from the citizens of the world, the impossible can potentially be accomplished and further harnessed.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Is Stereotyping Contagious? Essay -- essays research papers fc

Is Stereotyping Contagious?"Recent enquiry indicates that the gap between potent and female students mathematics achievement is gradually beginning to diminish (Gutbezahl, 1995) however, female students argon still underrepresented in advanced mathematics classes as well as in careers involving mathematics (Kerr,1994 demo & Maple, 1996)" (Drzewiecki and Westberg 1). This should concern lodge including parents, teachers, and students. Carmen Keller is nonpareil that has explored the topic of a male driven mathematical field. The goal in her clause, " Effect of Teachers Stereotyping on Students Stereotyping of maths as a Male Domain" is to discover and prove one aspect to this male domain. This being, students of teachers who run for to stereotype mathematics also tend to stereotype mathematics. Throughout the entire article, Keller supports her thesis actually well. The data she uncovers and develops is reliable, because she considers and eliminates featu res that could possibly factor into her research. She controls external and internal influences such as drill grade, school track, previous achievement and interest and self-confidence, respectively. Great research data and psychoanalysis helps the reader feel supported and the logical information helps connect society and sciences. The stick toing information is a summary of the data and interpretations provided in Carmen Kellers article represent in The Journal of Social Psychology.Keller examines an internal influence that make education, students perception of mathematics as a male domain. With support of other research she provides, in short, the students beliefs and their performance are correlated. Meaning that when comparing graphs of student beliefs on gender success in mathematics and actual success, the graphs follow a similar pattern. Through personal experience, I have make this to be true. Students that have positive views about a particular bailiwick tend to be more interested, thus performing better. This also whole kit on the other end of the spectrum. Negative views deem less effort, which produces results on a lower floor possible accomplishment. The student is not all at fault for these beliefs they are influence by an international source in some way. Whether this outside influence is a fellow student, parents, siblings or teachers I feel I still need some more proof. Keller is tryi... ...nces that she did not control. Carmen Kellers article was very informative. Some of the data may have been slightly complicated for an average out consumer, not educated in statistics. I have always questioned why I have found more males in my math classes passim my education and while researching my possible mathematical careers. nary(prenominal), after reading Kellers article, I have more of an understanding about one of the contributing factors found in the gender-divided mathematical field.Works CitedDrzewiecki, L. and Westberg, K. &quo tGender Differences in High drill Students Attitudes Toward Mathematics in Traditional Versus Cooperative Groups." The National Research nucleus on the Gifted and Talented. 1997, Spring Newsletter.Gutbezahl, J. "How Negative Expectancies and Attitudes Undermine Females Math self-assertion and Performance A Review of the Literature." ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 380 279. 1995. Kerr, B., "Smart girls too." Ohio Psychological Press 1994.Stage, F. K., and Maple, S. A., "Incompatible Goals Narratives of Graduate Women in the Mathematics Pipeline." American Educational Research Journal (1996) 33, 23-51.

Gymnastics Essay -- Sports, Oldest Sports

Gymnastics is a sport that requires strength, flexibility, dedication, and determination. However, gymnastics also requires the ability to be graceful and delicate. For legion(predicate) years people obtain been dedicating themselves to this sport, training for either artistic or rhythmic gymnastics.The sport of gymnastics has been around for many years. Originating around 2,500 years ago makes it one of the oldest sports. People believe that the premier(prenominal) apparatus used was actually a bull. Men would grab onto the bulls horns and when they were propel in the air they would try to perform the best stunt sooner landing (Gutman, 1).Gymnastics originated in Greece where they believed that physical fitness was very important, still only to work force. It was so important that there was an open-air gymnasium in every city. The gymnasiums were also used as schools where philosophy, literature, and music were taught. The athletes, who were only men eighteen and olde r, trained all day every day. When they would compete they threw the javelin, climbed ropes, ran races, wrestled, and move weights. The athletes would perform without clothes on, and all women were forbidden to watch. Unlike Greece the Emperor of capital of Italy closed all the gymnasiums in A.D. 393 (Gutman, 2-3, 5).Years later around 1800 a German man named Johann Frederich Guts Muths developed a system of exercises that were ground off the exercises that the Greeks used. He also added climbing, balance causas, and military drills. Muths also wrote the primary real book on gymnastics (Gutman, 6).According to Gutman the true let of gymnastics was a German professor named Frederich Ludwig Jahn. He opened the early modern gymnasium around Berlin in 1811 and modeled it after the ancie... ...ragg, 22).The ordinal and last event is the horizontal bar. It is eight feet long and hangs eight feet to a higher place the floor. Gymnasts perform skills similar to the skills th at women perform on the uneven bars (Bragg, 23).The scrap and less known type of gymnastics is rhythmic gymnastics. It is performed on equivalent floor as artistic gymnastics and gymnasts show body movement and dance moves long with music. At the same time, they have to handle a small apparatus such as a rope, hoop, ball, clubs, or ribbon. The routines pot also be performed in groups of five people performing simultaneously (World, 2).The sport of gymnastics is known to be demanding and it requires a great learn of determination and dedication. However, it is becoming an increasingly popular sport. For thousands of years people have dedicated their lives to artistic and rhythmic gymnastics.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Progressivism on a National Level :: essays research papers

Reform of corrupt businesses and organization start-off drew attention at local and state take aims. Big businesses in the late 1800s preferred profit over patriotism, credit over honor, separate gain over bailiwick prosperity, and trade and dickering over principles. It was not until 1901, when Theodore Roosevelt became president, that progressivism was brought to the national level. During Roosevelts presidency, he would push reform as much as possible by strengthening the power of the federal government.The Sherman Antitrust coiffe of 1890 was an early attempt to try to check out abuses by large combinations of businesses called trusts. The flake was weakened by the Supreme Court used against labor unions earlier than against monopolies. Roosevelts first push for reform on the national level began with a secret antitrust investigation of the J. P. Morgans Northern Securities beau monde whom monopolized railroad traffic. After successfully using his powers in government to control businesses, Roosevelt used the Sherman Antitrust Act against forty-three bad trusts that broke the practice of law and left the good trusts alone. When united mine workers went on strike demanding less(prenominal) hours, more money, and wisdom as a union, the price of coal went from $2.50 to $6.00 a ton. With the nations high dependence on coal during the winter, Roosevelt pose a meeting with representatives from both sides to meet. He threatened to seize the mines and grade them with federal troops and eventually settled it by giving them a reduction in the workday and wage summations, but no recognition as a union.Another Act that expanded the federal governments power included the Elkins Act which outlawed railroad rebates and created the section of Commerce and Labor to act as a corporate watchdog. The interstate highway Commerce Commission (ICC) was created in 1887 to regulate railroads but was never disposed real power to set rates and prevent discriminatory practices. To increase the power of the ICC, Roosevelt passed the Hepburn Act of 1906, and for the first time, a government commission could analyze private business records and set rates. When Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle was published, reformers took other look at the meatpacking industry. The novels startling accounts of pestiferous conditions in the meatpacking plants resulted in the passing of the Pure Food and do drugs Act and a Meat Inspection Act.

Theory Of Varied Consume Choice Behavior And Its Importance :: essays research papers

Theory Of Varied Consume Choice sort and Its ImportanceFor decades, scholars and practiti sensationrs have been frustrated by the verylimited talent of either psychological or marketing models to predictindividual choices on particular occasions. This publisher discusses a theorywhich explains the degree to which the extant models exclude historic influencesthat produce varied individual choice deportment. The focus of this paper is onthe sequences of product purchases. Discretionary actions and activities argonalso covered.THE THEORETICAL AND apply RELEVANCE OF VARIED BEHAVIOUR     The assumption that consumers make rational, utility-maximizing choiceshas played an important role in economic thought. As long as preferences reposeunchanged, the consumer is expected to subscribe to the most favourite(a) of theavailable products. Thoughts about consumers doings towards substituteshold a identical position. If a consumers preference for the most preferre dalternative product declines or the product is currently unavailable, theconsumer is expected to choose a close substitute. From the firms strategicpoint of view, this means that the marketer of a secondary brand should makeits brand similar to the most general brand.Careful consideration of the preceding description of consumer choicebehaviour and the firms endurance of a strategy immediately leads one toquestion the general pertinency of these assumption / thought. Althoughconsumers often display stable preferences, sound choice behaviour seldomremains constant. Instead, consumers frequently change their choices ofproducts or brands. Furthermore, the choices made on several(predicate) occasions ofteninvolve two very different products or brands. In summary, changing, variedbehaviour is the rule. Managers often avoid the aim of simple "me-too" brands,recognizing that consumers are seeking more than simple substitutes. Thistendency is seen forthwith in a number of pro duct categories in which successfulproducts are seldom replaced with highly similar products. Instead, a degree ofproduct newness is viewed as being essential to maintain consumer interest.The theory of consumer choice behaviour that is presented in this paperis designed to explain the typical degree of variability that consumers debunkin a series of related choices. Should this theory more accurately describeindividual choices, than the meaning and predictive power of many models mustiness bequestioned. For example, the results from all preference-based mapping methods,such as MDPREF (Carroll, 1972) and the Schonemann-Wang (1972) models, should be interpret with great care. In these cases, the analyst must resist jumping tothe end point that the choice objects that appear close to each other havesimilar characteristics. All simple attribute-based choice models, such as thewidely use conjoint method, must also be interpreted carefully. Here one mustresist the assumption that the set of most preferred items forget necessarily have

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Exercise of Authority in Measure for Measure Essay -- Measure for Meas

At the outset, we find the Duke transferring his power and authority to Angelo. He lends to Angelo his sustain terror and dresses Angelo with his love, giving his deputation all the organs of his own power. He says that from now on mortality and mercy in Vienna would live in Angelos tongue and heart. The Duke motive in appointing Angelo to function in his stead is, as he tells Friar doubting Thomas, to free the country of the evils which have taken strong roots and which, he ideates, he himself cannot eradicate because of his reputation as a very lenient man. immediately the question is how far the Duke is justified in appointing a substitute to line up the kingdom and reform the corrupt Vienna society. We do not think that the Duke is justified in taking such a step. We are for sure not convinced by the basis which he gives to Friar Thomas for not undertaking the task of reform himself. Why should the Duke evade his office? He tells Friar Thomas that, if he were now suddenly to go bad strict and stern, his actions would cause much resentment among the people. that this is no reason why a ruler should himself go into the background and appoint other man to take his place. Besides, we soon afterwards find that the Duke in provoke more in observing Angelo at work as his deputy, and less(prenominal) is seeing evil being eradicated. We find that the Duke is concerned more with staining his deputy actions than with the process of reform. He becomes more interested in reflection and prying into the personal as well as official heart of Angelo than in the direction which the public affairs of the country are taking.Angelos Exercise of AuthorityAs soon as Angelo is given target of the kingdom, he begins to exercise his authority in a relentless manner. H... ...e protested against jurist being totally pushed into background with mercy holding the field. The Duke compels Angelo to get unite to Mariana, the girl whom he had once betrayed and forsaken, an d the girl whom he has now seduced. But that is the only punishment which is imposed upon a character who proves to be the whip sinner among all the characters of the play. References1Marsh, Nicholas. Shakespeare Three Problem Plays New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 20032Montrose, Louis Adrian. Shaping Fantasies Figuration of sexuality and power in Elizabethan cultures 1983.3Rogers, Pat. The Oxford Illustrated History of English Literature Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1993.4Schanzer, Ernest(1963). The worry plays of Shakespeare London, Routledge&Kegan Paul, 1963.5Tillyard, E.M.W. Shakespeares problem plays London, Chatto&Windous, 1964.

The Language of MIT :: Numbers School Education Communication Essays

The Language of MIT I have 18.02 due at 400 P. M. on 11/14/00 in 16-135. Then I have to go to 8.01 in 26-100 at 500 P. M. and get at least a 65 on Exam 3. Do you remember the Athena glob combination? Oh, yeah, its 43169*. To an average person, this jargon sounds like a computer mark or a series of misunderstandings. However, every MIT student has probably say and heard something like this to describe his or her schedule in a small part of the day. Numbers are the language at MIT, and they coiffure all sorts of places, classes, work, time, and even the students themselves. This powerful yet simple constitution of chat has completely engulfed this train and made organization much easier because of the clarity of metrical composition and the obscurity of language. Even before I considered applying to MIT, I thought of this school as a center of mathematics and science. Of course the name suggests this fact, simply not until I visited the campus during the summe r before my senior year of luxuriously-pitched school did I realize the truth of that statement. My visit began with directions to Lobby 7 where I would meet with a tour guide. Coming from a high school where all the grammatical constructions were named and clearly labeled outside, I expected a giant number seven on the front edifice of a building to designate it from the others, but I had no such luck. Instead, I scanned the map of the campus several times before finding Building 7 on Massachusetts Avenue. I did not find this designation for the building anywhere outside until I went in and saw one of the doors inside(a) surrounding the massive lobby. When my tour began, the guide led us through a myriad of identical halls and corridors until we finally went outside. She began to describe the numbering system across campus and explained that many of the buildings we walked through were distinguished on the outside lonesome(prenominal) by numbers on the doors, which I ha d not understood preferably yet. Then she listed some of the required freshman courses including multiple semesters of Calculus and the three main natural sciences. Following the tour was an information session for future students and their parents to ask questions about the admissions process.

Monday, March 25, 2019

The Mr. T. Experience, Yo La Tengo, and The Knitting Factory?...Oh... :: Free Essays Online

The Mr. T. Experience, Yo La Tengo, and The Knitting Factory?...Oh... Tonight at Tramps, Chisel, fuzzy and Velocity Girl, seven dollar cover, all ages. Before I became indie reel literate I would not tolerate been able to record the above quote from a concert flier. Someone who is indie rock illiterate might read it as an add for a brothel, featuring the intake of tools, and hairy fast women of all ages. On the other hand, someone who is indie rock literate would bash to read it as tonight at the concert venue called Tramps there will be a scan featuring the bands Chisel, Fuzzy and Velocity Girl, it costs seven dollars to get in and you may be any age to attend. I used to watch my friends mike and Zoe with awe and jealousy. They had found a way into the seemingly elite populace of indie rock (independent rock music). They bought the records, wore the clothes, and close to importantly they spoke the row. The language was one that sounded a lot like English, but it was fill ed with actors line and phrases like Brownies, Bikini Kill, and all ages show. It was clear that although these could be taken as normal English words they had other meanings, meanings with which I was not familiar. I wondered how these friends of mine had managed to obtain their passports into this land of mystery, wonder, and seven-inch singles. I now know that there is not a secret handshake that gets a psyche into the indie rock scene. Nor is there a panel of ultra-cool guardians hiding extinct in rock clubs deciding whos in and whos out. There is merely a certain type of literacy that one eventually picks up if one observes and listens and lets oneself drop dead part of the scene. Just like any other kind of literacy, nothing is born with it, it needs to be learned. My transition from illiteracy to literacy in this body politic has become something of a blur for me. Im not sure when or how I became indie rock literate, but I am now. One of the most important aspects of t his form of literacy is that it enables me to talk to people about something that I am interested in. Being indie rock literate, it is easier to clearly convey thoughts and ideas that have to do with the world that particular subculture within American popular culture.

Endurance in Night by Eli Wiesel Essay -- essays research papers

In the Face of AdversityMost of the important things in the orb have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no help at all.? Dale Carnegie believed that application could overcome even the harshest obstacles. Perseverance is inspired by a purpose, an unsatiable drive to achieve a goal. During a cataclysmic event, only people with a purpose range.In Night, Eliezer endures the Holocaust with a purpose to take note his amaze alive. He is a 15 years old male child when he and Chlomo began their journey through the perilous camps of Auschwitz, Buna, and Buchenwald. Eventually, Eliezer loses his faith in deity but not in his initiate. He had felt that his father was growing weak, he had believed that the end was near and had sought this separation in lay to get rid the burden, to free himself from an encumbrance My God, Lord of the Universe, give me potence never to do what Rabbi Eliahous son has done?(87).The motivation Eliezer has to end ure is to keep his father alive. Even though his father is a continual burden, Eliezer is determined never to desert his father like Rabbis Eliahous son attempts. Even when Chlomo becomes sick with dysentery, Eliezer stays by his side. He gives his father his own soup, forfeits his own bread, and even tries to get a doctor to help. For a ration of bread, I managed to change beds with a prisoner in my fathers bunk? (1...

Sunday, March 24, 2019

An Analysis of the Fast Moving Consumer Product Industry and a Review of Kao Corporation :: Business Marketing Japan Essays

An Analysis of the immediate pathetic Consumer Product Industry and a Review of Kao Corporationexecutive Summary In this project, I contribute chosen the Fast abject Consumer Product application as the topic of study. First of all we volition take a brief verbalism at how the industry started in the late 19th century as soap making companies and tardily evolving into near of the most successful multidomestic partnership of today. Following we will have insight on the industrys prominent characteristics and highlight or so of the major players. We will also get an idea of the attractiveness of the industry through the use of Porters 5 forces industrial compendium. include in this project is an in-depth review of Kao Corporation, Japan. Kao Corporation is one of the major players in the industry. Here we will take a look at how the Japanese based company employs strategies to reduce cost and at the same measure differentiate its product from its competitors to gain competi tive advantage. We will also realize some of the key financial ratios to aid us in identifying some of the companys strength and weaknesses. Then a SWOT analysis is carried out on the company. From the SWOT analysis we can formulate worthy strategies in indian lodge to remediate the performance of the company. By closely examining the companys internal environment to better understand the companys capabilities and limitations and then analysing the changes in the external environment that could affect the company favorably or adversely, appropriate strategies can be formed in order to ensure high performance of the company. Then finally we will look at other possible recommendation, which I believe would help improve the companys performance in the competitive fast despicable consumer products industry. Fast lamentable Consumer Product Industrial Brief Fast lamentable Consumer Product are products that consumer would use regularly. The product line of Fast locomote Consumer Products encompasses a wide range of products such as shampoo, body sparkle and facial wash. These products are classified as fast moving callable to the nature of its usage and durability. While shampoos are non-perishables, the consumer would eventually finish utilizing it and would have a bun in the oven to purchase another bottle of shampoo. Therefore, unlike products like television and radios which consumers would and buy once in a blue moon, Fast Moving Consumer Products are bought constantly from time to time by consumers. The Fast Moving Consumer Product Industry has evolving since the 19th century.

Labyrinth and Star Wars :: Movies Essays

Labyrinth and booster cable WarsIt is amazing how in many stories a group of the most unlikely characters can get the better of the most impossible odds. The battle of good vs. evil is reenacted in kB upon thousand of movies. A lot of the times in these movies the group of heroes consist of truly ordinary or odd characters, those who seem to possess fewer heroic traits. As seen in the movies Labyrinth and the first made lead-in Wars, a group of small and seemingly powerless characters can get well great evils.The movie the Labyrinth tells a story ab by a group of unlikely heroes trying to make their way though a maze in order to defeat the Goblin King. The story starts out with the main character Sarah whom, without even realizing it, wishes her baby brother to be taken way by Jareth the Goblin King. He tells her that if she wants her brother back she leave have to make her way finished the labyrinth and to the castle beyond the Goblin City. She altogether has 13 hours to complete the seemingly impossible task or her little brother toby jug will be morose into a goblin. While making her way through the twisted and unfading maze Sarah runs into many weird characters. The first person she encounters is Hoggle a very untrustworthy dwarf whom is under the influence of Jareth. He is selfish and does things only if there is something for him to gain. He betrays Sarah many times throughout the movie, but in the end he proves himself to be more than a traitorous coward. Ludo is a yeti and despite looking vicious is a gentle and lovingness monster. Ludo also has the power to control rocks. Sir Didymis is a loudmouthed, but noble gymnastic horse who displays his valor throughout the movie. The four heroes manage to fight their way through the perilous labyrinth. The Goblin King Jareth is defeated and Sarahs brother Toby is saved. Though the characters in this movie seemed to be nothing more than ordinary, and if not odd, they fought their way through lab yrinth and conquered an entire army of evil goblins and their king. (Labyrinth 1986)Star Wars also tells of a similar story the most unlikely make up of people can stop an entire evil empire. The movie begins with Princess Leias capture by the evil empire. In an attempt to save herself and her delegation plans, she sends two robots, R2D2 and C-3PO, to deliver a message to the illusive Ben Kenobi.