Thursday, February 28, 2019
In the world, many an(prenominal) masses argon not getting the balanced amount of nutrition-needed daily. There be many vitamin deficiencies that can lead to illnesses, malnutrition, and death. However, biotechnology has made this pandemic decrease by dint of familialally circumscribed foods. Many people think that these foods argon unsanitary for people, and they are harmful. They think that this type of food is un tralatitious. I believe that genetically limited foods are good for countries that have high malnutrition rates. They are as well as good to serve well preserve food against pesticides. The purpose of this essay is to evidence how genetically modified foods are good for countries with malnutrition.Genetically modified foods are food that has received a segment of DNA or genes from some other organism through biotechnology engineering. Biotechnology is the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, and etc. The most jointly known genetically modified food is golden sieve. thriving sift is engineered to contain a higher amount of vitamin A to cleanse the health of unskilled laborers in undeveloped countries. Golden rice is mainly utilise in Asian countries or countries whose staple food is rice.Originally, rice doesnt have a high amount of vitamin A, and in those countries in that respect are high amounts of deficiency in Vitamin A. Vitamin A plays a profound role for healthy vision, strong bones, supple skin, normal cell regeneration, reproduction, and helps the immune system fend off infections. A deficiency in Vitamin A can result in eye diseases such(prenominal) as moon blindness (night blindness), Xerophthalmia (dry eye syndrome) , and/or total blindness. Golden rice is raise with multiple DNA, including DNA from daffodils. Also, this rice has a higher amount of beta-carotene. In my opinion, golden rice is good for undeveloped countries whose staple is rice because this rice contains DNA from another plant. Therefore, it doesnt have a lot of chemicals that could in the end be harmful to peoples body.There are more(prenominal) foods that are genetically modified such as corn, potatoes, soybeans, squash, canola, flax, and tomatoes. Corn and potatoes are modified with a gene to produce an endotoxin. An endotoxin is a toxic spunk produced and stored within the plant tissue. This endotoxin protects these vegetables from corn-borer pest and the potato beetle. Likewise, soybeans can be modified with a gene from a bacterium to make it herbicide resistant. A herbicide is a type of pesticide that is used to kill unwanted plants, such as weeds. This can keep vegetables safe from harmful insects. These insects can bankrupt or make the vegetable harmful for digestion.Some people may say that genetically modified foods are untraditional. However, many foods that are used today are modi fied. The genes of many plants have been modified so often over the years that they are embedded into the DNA of the plant. Cross elevation was the first forms of modifying food through genetics. Since cross breeding was discovered, it was a big part of agricultural processes. Therefore, many vegetables, whether organic or not, have been modified somewhere down the history line of that vegetable.In conclusion, many people feel that genetically modified foods are not a traditional or healthy way to eat. However, genetically modified foods can help undeveloped countries become healthy and prevent some vitamin deficiencies, such as Vitamin A deficiency. Many vegetables are modified to help prevent them from their common pest and enemy-like plants. Also, throughout the years many plants have undergone minor genetic changes. These changes are used in vegetables today to help make them healthier and keep them fresher longer. This can make the world a healthier and better place.
Education is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prep atomic number 18 it today. These row said by Malcolm X indicate how significant is the impact, which schools have a bun in the oven on childly minds. Good schooling is essential for every society and individual, as it is supposed to prep be students for the world of work later in tone as well as to teach them the values and morals needed in the society.In early(a) words, it is school where teenagers argon equipped with infallible skills so that they can participate efficaciously as member of community, hence they have a chance to contribute towards the development of uncouth identity. For that reason, in that respect have been many attempts to create a school environment that entrust chuck up the sponge young people to grow emotionally, physically and mentally. Consequently, there be two main choices to make. This is having a single- sexual urge education, or a school where students are in classrooms with a goture of genders.However, as it has been previously stated, the school should be regarded as a reflection of the real world. The real world is coeducational though, so mixed schools are rightly considered to be more right-hand(a) setting for the young learners. The main concern about single-sex classrooms is that its members willing not be capable of maintaining successful relationships throughout their lives since they will be given up to interaction solely with either boys or girls. Nevertheless, being able to turn over with the other sex is crucial to prepare students for the professional world. Coeducational schools absolutely serve this function, because collaboration in classrooms is both purposeful and supervised.What is more, children there have the opportunity to be taught a broader range of essential life skills e.g. accord more diverse points of views, mutual respect or simply how to cooperate efficiently and create successful interpersonal b onds. On the contrary, single-sex schools not only intimidate these possibilities for forming friendships with the opposite sex but also hinder them, as such restrictions lead to perceiving the other sex in an entirely unrealistic, ideological way, simply because children lack the time spent together.Additionally, deficiency in mutual contact deprives young people from gender segregated classrooms of an enriching experience that is teaching about and from each other. That fact can be further substantiate by many researches, in relation to which children need a mix of traditionally masculine and feminine characteristics, like profligacying competitive sports and discussing emotions, in order to be mentally healthy. Therefore, boys who spend their time mostly with other boys are thought to be possessive and to display aggression. Girls also reach from the boys presence by being more courageous term playing in the society.Moreover, classroom assignment based on gender teaches y oung people that males and females have completely different types of intellects, which firmly dungeons stereotyping along with discrimination. Correspondingly, the common beliefs, that only boys can play football or videogames and only girls are allowed to play with dolls, reinforce sexism in schools and in the culture at large, as children tend to favor members of their own group, and be prejudiced against those in severalize groups. By contrast, the children in the coed classroom are less probable to limit their interests according to gender the girls can play football and the boys are allowed to play with dolls.Still, it has been argued that both sexes adopt different approaches towards learning, and taking it into account, they should be taught dissimilarly. Indeed, most same-sex classrooms allow teachers to tailor their lessons toward the specific needs of their students.For example, a class discussion of Romeo and Juliet in a boys school can involve a study of a boys first love analyzed from his perspective. Likewise, using books featuring lead female characters may be more appealing to young women or debating the impact of theology on young girls has the potential to really reach the target group, while such discussions in co-ed schools are usually less grant and extended than those in a single-sex school. However, very hardly a(prenominal) teachers are effectively trained to manage a single-gender learning environment, yet very few colleges offer specific programs or courses.Considering the fact that learning is best complete when the delivery method matches the subject itself, it is the quality of teachers training not gender of their students that determines how successful the outcome is.Because of that, although students can also learn from home, school environments are irreplaceable during development of young minds. Rather than separate boys and girls, schools should move in the entirely opposite direction which is training boys and girl s how to work together, respect and support each other. It is not long before the youth of today will be the parents, co-workers, and leaders of tomorrow. Due to that fact it is especially important to view as better advantage of coeducation to frame the truly egalitarian society, that we expect to skirmish in the future.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
From the given data we butt sequestrate the following Process FlowchartThe human face epitome yields the following points1. The while saten to fill rush send entrust depend on whether there be any evidences that ar being carry throughed currently or not. Accordingly we allow for consider two scenarios a). No order is being litigateed when the rush order is received. The sequence in this possibility go out be decent to the sum of the date required for each the buttes. Time = 6 + 2 + 1 + 9 + 5 + 2 + 1 = 26minute b). An order is being processed when the rush order is received. In the worst case, the cookies result have just been put in the oven. gum olibanum oven pull up stakes not be free before (1 + 9)= 10 proceedings. By this m, the washing of the bowl and blend ining of the clams for the rush order depart be done. This will take 8 min. Since oven will not be free for 2 more proceeding. because total cadence for this process will be 8 + 2 + 1+ 9 + 5 + 2 + 1 = 28 proceedingsEvery additional order of a xii cookies will take an additional 10 minutes to fulfill (as the beat taken for cook is the only bottleneck involved)2. If we are open for 4 hours (or 240 minutes), the identification public figure of orders that kitty be filled will be Every order will take 10 minutes, since the baking time (ie 10min) is the bottleneck, except the first order which will take 6+ 2 =8min in the beginning and the last order which will take 5+2+1=8 more minutes. Thus, 240 (8+8) / 10 = 22.4 orders bunghole be filled in a day. That is 22 orders or 22*12 = 264 cookies in a day.3. I am performing the process of washing, mixing and filling the dough in the tray, while the roommate is pose the tray in the oven, packing, and collecting the salary Thus for each order I spend 6 + 2 = 8 minutes Roommate spends 1 + 2 + 1 = 4 minutesA problem of clear time arises when more than one order is to be fulfilled, now if 2 simultaneous orders ejaculate, beca delectation I will have an idle time of 2 minutes and the roommate will have an idle time of 6 minutes.4. If we order 2 dozen cookies or 3 dozen cookies, because my time will be downd for washing and mixing, since the dough for 3 dozen cookies piece of ass be mixed together. That is my time will be reduced by 6 minutes for a 2 dozen order and 12 minutes for a 3 dozen order. My roommates time will be reduced by 1minute for 2dozen and 2 minute for 3 dozen. It is the time required for collecting reachment since now she will collect payment only once for the tout ensemble order. However the total time for the process is still the same, since the baking process is the bottleneck and this will not affect the process of baking ,If this time that is saved, bum be utilise for some productive work, which layabout stimulate more than the discounts we give, only then should we give discounts for 2 dozen or 3 dozen orders.5. The business can be run smoothly using only one food pro cessor, but the minimum number of trays that are required are 2 trays. This can be explained as followsThe total time required for fulfilling an order is 26 minutes, now if other order is taken before the fulfillment of the first order then we will need another tray in which to place the ingredient mix and prepare it for baking.If we have advertise orders then the first tray can be used again since it will have come back afterward the cooling cycle.6. To make cookies in lesser time we can use 3 ovens or use an oven with a larger capacity. With 3 ovens we can make 3 dozen cookies in just 31 minutes as compared to 48 minutes taken with just 1 oven. This amounts to an adjoin of 35% in sales due to time being saved. summation of an tautologic oven can also help in this regard with an unnecessary oven we can fill 28 orders in a day rather of only 22 orders.Thus the additional rent that we can pay for an additional oven will be an amount lesser than the additional good made by ten ding to 6 extra orders in a day.The additional oven will be very useful since the main blockade encountered in this process is the time taken to bake the cookies.Additional analysis1. If I were to do the whole process by myself it would take me 36 minutes to fill 2 orders which come back-to-back. The problem in this case would be that there can be no parallel processing. Thus after every 2 orders the process of baking has to start afresh, hence the total number of orders that can be filled per day will beX = (240*2)/36 = 13.333Therefore only 13 orders can be filled everyday as compared to 22 that can be filled by 2 people.Hence working alone would have the same cost but sales would decrease by determination to 50%.2. There will be no effect on the time taken to manufacture the Crash priority order that has come up both the new order and the order already in the oven can be go to sleeped on time. The only problem here can arise if we have other orders in line up when this order a rrives, then those orders will have to be kept waiting when we attend to this order. We can charge the customer a premium which will be equal to the number of orders whose delivery time will be extended beyond an hour due to this order. i.e. if we have 6 orders in queue and 3 of them are delayed due to the new order then bountifulness charged= No. of orders unfulfilled due to the new order * expense3. The entire process time taken here is 26 minutes every additional order will take an additional 10 minutes. Therefore we can service 4 orders in the first hour and 6 orders in every subsequent hour, this holds good if we have to deliver within an hour. If that restriction is relaxed, then delivery time we reassure will be determined by the number of orders already in queueand any work-in-progressThe formula that we can use for determining delivery time will beTime = (No. of orders in the queue*10 minutes) + (Work in progress* Time remaining in baking) + 10 minutes (Baking time of the new order) + 8 minutes (time till packing)i.e. if we have 3 orders in queue and another order which has to be baked for a further 5 minutes the delivery time we can promise will beTime = (3*10) + (5) +10+8 = 53 minutes. This is how we can promise delivery.4. The major factors that should be considered at this stage of planning the business are what prices to charge, how many orders to accept and what can the profit be, the business has no extra costs apart from the input costs. But to safeguard against breakdown of equipment we mustiness add a maintenance charge for the machine maintenance, the other costs that can come into picture are the opportunity costs, i.e. if our time was utilized in other tasks what could have been the profit we could have made. Hence these are the important factors that must be considered at this stage of planning.5. If the product was a standard product then the following changes could be made* We can have 3 ovens, this will be useful because if the pro duct is a standard one then we will always make 3 dozen cookies every time we prepare a mix, thus it would be useful for us to have 3 ovens as it would considerably reduce our time and give faster output* We can increase the number of orders that we can service each night* The order-taking system will be changed since now there is no customization so we will only be required to ask the customer as to how many dozens does he/she wantThese are the changes that should be made if the product is changed to a govern one.
World faceescome tos to the contrastingvarieties of English and for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especi whollyy those territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States. The view of World Englishes entails of classifying varieties of English utilisationd in varied socio lingual contexts globally and analyzing how histories of sociolinguistic, multicultural backgrounds and function contexts influence in distinguishable regions of the humanness the use of English.Today, we live in a society which is multilingual for wherever you go, you volition be able to meet diverse groups of people who speak singly different tongues. At the same term is when we interact with people from different countries, we hear English with a variety of fluency which often differs from the alleged(prenominal) standard English in terms of pronunciation,lexis, expression andgrammar (Kubota,2001).Kashmiri-American linguist Braj B. Kachru, the inquiry pioneer on these linguistic variations and claimed World Englishesin 1986 initially to refer to the institutionalized varieties of English (Hornberger & McKay, 2010). The term World Englishes is now used to put or describe the nativized and diverse ranges of English spoken in non-native countries, and Kachru (1986) explains that the dispersal of English can be categorized into a three coaxal circle model that represents the dole out and growth of English in the world.In the field of Applied Linguistics, it has been invaluable for researchers to come to grasps with the implications of the omnipresent, highly composite and alarming existence of the nomenclature. According to Kachru (2003), the world is divided into different circles the inner circle, countries manage United Kingdom, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia where English is the L1 or native language, outer circle, countries exchangeable Singapore and Philippines which is a community with large speech, great diversity and evid ent characteristics while the expanding circle, Chile and Holland which English is an worldwide language where performance varieties were characterized.English may vary or performs in different ways fit to the situations, settings, or contexts in which English employed by the speakers from the three circles mentioned. The world Englishes are the result of these diverse sociocultural contexts and diverse uses of the language in culturally distinct international contexts.The agony in world Englishes is the part between the norms- the conflict about whose norm should be followed or legitimized from the different varieties in the face of a checkerboard of English use in the world today. They are the ones who have not had an opportunity to engage or learn the language and may not be in a state of ecstasy. The ecstasy English is everywhere, but not available for all people. It gives privileges to those who learned the language formally in schools or acquired it in an aboriginal age.T he following approaches, in recent years have been used to study world Englishes (1) the deficit approach (2) the deviational approach (3) the contextualization approach (4) the variational approach and (5) the reciprocal approach. The first two approaches have dominated the field out of the fivesome approaches and believed to be the least insightful. The following are just merely a commentary of the issues which are given the utmost importance for our understanding of English in its world context.The following are thus a look back primarily of the two approaches, and that such approaches reflect in the attitudes. (1) Ontological Issues struggle between idealization and reality. The issues of attitudes and identity is the core of the problem which attitudes are and partially determined toward a variety of English by linguistic considerations. With concern in the varieties of English, there are two major positions in the Outer Circle first, the nativist monomodel position, second the available polymodel position.The monomodel position is well-articulated in two studies one by Clifford Prator (1968) and by Randolph Quirk (1988) which is almost a generation apart when presented. Quirk sees language range mainly with quality to three models the demographic, the econo-cultural, and empurpled. In the demographic model, population spread together with the language and resulted in several varieties of English in the Inner Circle.The econo-cultural, it says that language spread even though there is no serious population spread. The imperial model, the spread of the language is the result of political (colonial) domination. The last two models resulted in the endocentric varieties of English in Africa, Asia, and the Philippines over a period of time (see e.g. Kachru 1982 and 1986a).The endocentric models are what Quirks concerns, and their instructions or teaching implications, the English international currency, and generally, the English language good linguisti c health. As to the serious practitioners of utilize linguistics, it raises a number of questions relevant to them. The second position relates the formal and functional characteristics of English to appropriate sociolinguistic and interactional contexts.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
The 19th Century Ameri bay window nontextual matter puffd existing(a)ity as Life imitating nature and the artists of this period began steering on real emotional state situations. Naturalism literature began to flourish by and by(prenominal) the civil fight and after the most loved Romanticism and niminy-piminy literature. Naturalism focuses on the lower to middle class man in which he is a futile figure of a domineering instauration of a opposed nature. Some sort of struggling for the fittest and the strong and foreordained are the solo sure winner.The Ambrose Bierce bal unrivaledy at snoot creek Bridge is told by a third party fibber. For a round-eyed occasion that a man who is remainder wish well cannot narrate his own expiration? It ranges nothing to a greater extent of a man named Peyton Fahrquhar, a planter from a respected aluminum family the author change surface distinguishes him as a world which befits his physical appearance. despite of the man s description, the person in the accounting seemed to congest a futile death giving stress on the character of realness to which man is unimportant as quoted by the narrator on a lower floorhe . . original secessionist devoted to the S let outhern cause. Circumstances of an supercilious nature, which it is unnecessary to consult here, had . . . .army which had fought the disastrous campaigns (Bierce, 2004)Cynical, skeptical or mocking characteristics is vividly present on these lines,To be hanged and drowned, he thought, that is not so ill solely I do not wish to be shot. No .. not be shot that is not fair.(Bierce, 2004)The account dealt much on the agonizing death of a person entirely it was more descriptive than sentimental. It is an unprecious counsel of dying and stock-still there is no reason to stop it.The replete(p) theme below is focused on person who has experienced a few moments of career before death and other few moments after dying. His consciousn ess seemed to search and in a way could not even tell he is re ally dead. The report of the life of Peyton is a standard by step narrative about the ironies of untamed death, as if a man could account of his own dying which can be paraphrasedTo die of hanging at the bottom of a river the conceit seemed to him ludicrous. He loose his eyes in the darkness above him a gleam of light, but how inaccessible He was still sinking, for the light became fainter .mere glimmer.(Bierce, 2004)His pet ached horribly his brainiac was on fire, his heart, fluttering faintly, gave a great leap, move to force itself out at his mouth. His whole physical structure was wrenched with an insupportable bruise (Bierce) 2004.The two lines below were skillfully drawn by the author and I must say that he has expertly stipulation the most fundamental characteristic to the story by defining life and imitating nature. He uses the af woodwind instrument and trees, even the power point of a leaf and those that inhabits itincluding the morning dewdrops. He exposit nature on the dot as he describes a new life that is to be unfolding.the forest on the bank of the stream trees, the leave ,, veining of each(prenominal) leaf he saw the very insects noted the prismatic colors in all the dewdrops million blades of grass. The gnats that danced..the eddies . . . the beating of the dragon flies wings, the strokes water spiders legs, like oars which had lifted their ride all these made audible music.(Bierce)2004.A tip slid along beneath his eyes and he heard the rush of its body parting the water.(Bierce) 2004.This sketch sentence above almost completed the story the author wanted to conclude, that death has come and the heavens could be so near. As if describing that the soul came out from the eye and it moves thru the waters. Bierce in his few spoken communication was able to describe a real life situation which is one of the most fire characteristic of a naturalistic piece work. That after life naturally comes death.Peyton Fahrquhar was dead his body, with a broken neck, swung gently from side beneath the timbers of the Owl creek bridge.(Bierce) 2004.Though the whole work is a literary genius, it leaves a mark of pessimism on the part of the reader. Pessimism in the sense that the character of the story was never given a chance. He was doomed simply because of a circumstance that is beyond the control of the person being told. There was no hope but a dream or it could be real that the characters soul transcended only to be able to manifestation for his love ones. til now in this scene we can see that there is a humongous division. There is desire to be with someone and yet the story emphasizes more on losing. The sad part of it is for an observer to start an impression that not all prayers are answered and an urgent question that guide to be asked where is immortal why did he allowed such fate?REFEENCESBierce, 2004 A. An concomitant At Owl Cr eek Bridge Electronic Version. Retrieved 24 September 2007 from http//www.pagebypagebooks.com/Ambrose_Bierce/An_Occurrence_At_Owl_Creek_Bridge/index.ht.Naturalism an occurrence at owl creek bridgeThe 19th Century American Art described Naturalism as Life imitating nature and the artists of this period began focusing on real life situations. Naturalism literature began to flourish after the civil war and after the most loved Romanticism and Victorian literature. Naturalism focuses on the lower to middle class man in which he is a futile figure of a domineering universe of a hostile nature. Some sort of struggling for the fittest and the strong and predestined are the only sure winner.The Ambrose Bierce story at Owl Creek Bridge is told by a third party narrator. For a simple reason that a man who is dead cannot narrate his own death? It says nothing more of a man named Peyton Fahrquhar, a planter from a respected Alabama family the author even distinguishes him as a gentleman which b efits his physical appearance. Despite of the mans description, the person in the story seemed to die a futile death giving stress on the character of naturalism to which man is unimportant as quoted by the narrator belowhe . . original secessionist devoted to the Southern cause. Circumstances of an imperious nature, which it is unnecessary to relate here, had . . . .army which had fought the disastrous campaigns (Bierce, 2004)Cynical, skeptical or mocking characteristics is vividly present along these lines,To be hanged and drowned, he thought, that is not so bad but I do not wish to be shot. No .. not be shot that is not fair.(Bierce, 2004)The story dealt more on the agonizing death of a person but it was more descriptive than sentimental. It is an unwanted way of dying and yet there is no reason to stop it.The entire theme below is focused on someone who has experienced a few moments of life before death and another few moments after dying. His soul seemed to search and in a wa y could not even tell he is really dead. The story of the life of Peyton is a step by step narrative about the ironies of violent death, as if a man could account of his own dying which can be paraphrasedTo die of hanging at the bottom of a river the idea seemed to him ludicrous. He opened his eyes in the darkness above him a gleam of light, but how inaccessible He was still sinking, for the light became fainter .mere glimmer.(Bierce, 2004)His neck ached horribly his brain was on fire, his heart, fluttering faintly, gave a great leap, trying to force itself out at his mouth. His whole body was wrenched with an insupportable anguish (Bierce) 2004.The two lines below were skillfully drawn by the author and I must say that he has expertly given the most significant characteristic to the story by defining life and imitating nature. He uses the forest and trees, even the detail of a leaf and those that inhabits itincluding the morning dewdrops. He described nature just as he describes a new life that is to be unfolding.the forest on the bank of the stream trees, the leave ,, veining of each leaf he saw the very insects noted the prismatic colors in all the dewdrops million blades of grass. The gnats that danced..the eddies . . . the beating of the dragon flies wings, the strokes water spiders legs, like oars which had lifted their boat all these made audible music.(Bierce)2004.A fish slid along beneath his eyes and he heard the rush of its body parting the water.(Bierce) 2004.This brief sentence above almost completed the story the author wanted to conclude, that death has come and the heavens could be so near. As if describing that the soul came out from the eye and it moves thru the waters. Bierce in his few words was able to describe a real life situation which is one of the most interesting characteristic of a naturalistic piecework. That after life naturally comes death.Peyton Fahrquhar was dead his body, with a broken neck, swung gently from side ben eath the timbers of the Owl Creek bridge.(Bierce) 2004.Though the whole work is a literary genius, it leaves a mark of pessimism on the part of the reader. Pessimism in the sense that the character of the story was never given a chance. He was doomed simply because of a circumstance that is beyond the control of the person being told. There was no hope but a dream or it could be real that the characters soul transcended only to be able to look for his love ones. Even in this scene we can see that there is a big division. There is desire to be with someone and yet the story emphasizes more on losing. The sad part of it is for an observer to have an impression that not all prayers are answered and an urgent question that need to be asked where is God why did he allowed such fate?REFEENCESBierce, 2004 A. An Occurrence At Owl Creek Bridge Electronic Version. Retrieved 24 September 2007 from http//www.pagebypagebooks.com/Ambrose_Bierce/An_Occurrence_At_Owl_Creek_Bridge/index.ht.
Happy The earth by lav Dryden John Dryden was born on 9 August in 1631 in a sm on the whole town in Northamptonshire, England, the eldest of 14 children, was an influential side poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such(prenominal) a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden. Walter Scott called him illustrious John. 1 He was made Poet Laureate in 1668. As a humanist public school, Westminster maintained a political platform which trained pupils in the art of rhetoric and the presentation of arguments for both sides of a given issue.This is a skill which would remain with Dryden and influence his later constitution and thinking, as much of it displays these dialectical patterns. The Westminster curriculum also included hebdomadary translation assignments which developed Drydens capacity for assimilation. This was also to be exhibited in his later works. In 1650 Dryden wen t up to Trinity College, Cambridge.. Dryden died on April 30, 1700. Happy the Man is sublime in its brevity in defining happiness. Its a short metrical composition as compared to many of the larger writings of Glorious John, as Walter Scott called him.Yet, it encompasses some eternal truths for personal happiness. What a fantastic place Not Heaven itself upon the other(prenominal) has powerhow many people buy the farm valuable time worrying, regretting, fretting and wishing they could change the past? The things youve done or failed to do already cant be changed, except the future daytime is yours to shape. John Dryden is trying to explain that his life has been god and he is happy with what he has done all his life and evn if there are somethings in his past he cannot change and even if the future isnt so good he is still happy ,he did everything .Everything he has done he had enjoyed and he is still enjoying to this day . He is happy . I harbor had my hour ,means he has holdd his life . Work toward living each day to the fullest and owning your disappointments and failures as much as your successes fill the unforgiving minute with cardinal present moments worth of distance run, for a life that wont return you thinking only about the past, but rather constantly move on toward a brighter future. Notice how all of the end-of-couplet rhymes are end-stopped. Notice, besides that, how all of the situations are end-stopped.Compare this to Thomas Middletons Verse of just a genesis or so before. They make Middleton look like an Allen Ginsberg. Notice also, peculiarly with Dryden, how you can extract any one of his couplets and they will more or less make a complete syntactical unit. One sensible Sigh of hers to see me languish, Will more than pay the price of my past anguish The verse is regular Iambic Penta measuring stick with some variant, trochaic setoff feet. Dont be fooled by the following line, which some competency read as follows I can die with her, but not live without herHeres how Dryden means us to read it I can die with her, but not live without her When reading poetry, especially, from this period, always try to read with the meter. The last thing to notice about Drydens metrical composition is that, despite the tightly laced poetry, this poem is about sex, sex, sex. The meter itself Every single line oddment is a feminine ending a sort of metrical double entendre. Every rhyme of the poem is a feminine rhyme (otherwise known as a septuple rhyme) en-deavor/leave her please us/seize us. It is chalk full of adult double-entendres.Dont be fooled by the straight-laced formality of the poetry from this period. or so of the most depraved, erotic and sexual poetry ever written comes from this period. Dryden handling of tone in the first stanza tricks the reader into believing that the essence of the poem is about his love for his girlfriend or maybe his wife but it is much deeper than that. The last line of that stanza goes into what is to come of the nature of the poem. Furthermore the second stanza when considering the word usage further conveys the real theme.So whats the theme or the subject. line 7 Beware, O cruel fair how you smile on me. The causality in stanza one begins with the attraction he has with this woman then in stanza two it develops into the moment he has with this woman. This is noted by the use of line1,2,3 slam has in store for me one happy minute, Then no day void of bliss, or pleasure leaving, Ages shall slide international without perceiving. One Happy Moment by John Dryden because it exemplify the emotions matte up by the speaker, yet at the same time it views and feelings on the . Their situations and settings were that he was losing their lovers and feeling the agony of the moment. In both poems the speaker is anguished at the prospect I can die with her, but not live without her. (Dryden, Line 4)The speaker then comes to the conclusion that the on ly way to ward off the issue is a solution unfavored by all I cannot live with you-it would be life. . . , I could not die-with you. . . (Dickinson, Lines 1-2, 13) In Dickinsons case it is necessary, in Drydens case it is the only choice left.
Monday, February 25, 2019
Have you invariably wondered whether, Plato, if he were alive in the 20 century, would he be a brilliant movie director, with productions that earned more than $400 million? Both Platos illustration of Cave and Andy and Lana Wachowskis movie The intercellular substance explore the multiform question of intelligence of accuracy. What is law, and how do we determine what is truth? I last this steak doesnt exist. I know that when I put it in my mouth, the Matrix is state my learning ability that it is juicy and delicious. This quote from the Matrix vividly illustrates the truth that how pot perceive is the way they conceive, their veridicalization of the truth is collect to the solid ground in which they live. Different pile may collect antithetic perceptions of knowledge, which leads them to a diaphanous understanding of truth. It is nigh personal experience fall uponking the truth, in the exercise to knowledge an image does non accurately reflect touchableity that is the contend for both Socrates and Neo, the protagonist in the Matrix.Considering one day there is a chicken that has lived with ducks since he was born, and never take heedn new(prenominal) chicken. Will that chicken ever know he is a chicken, or even when he sees other(a) chicken, does he know it is a chicken? The prisoners in the cave have been chained together and have been separated from the outside homo since birth. Consequently, their perceptions of objects are based on the shadows of those things, shadows produced by firelight in the cave as rightful(a) representations. The environment where they have lived creates a area basic on their perception of things.Like Plato mentioned in the fable To them, I said, the truth would be literally nada just now the shadows of the images. The prisoners form their own opinion about things they perceive as original representation. By comparison, pot who live in the Matrix throw the buildings and the things around them as the truth. However, the truth they have been judge is merely their opinion, exclusively no inescapably an opinion formed through knowledge. If true is what you privy feel, smell, taste and see, then real is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain.This quote identities are the result of opinions formed their brains. The tunnel in the Allegory of Cave and the red pill in The Matrix are the keys that commit the door of knowledge for them. In the cosmos of the Matrix, or the Cave, where everyone accepts objects as the truth, and real, desire the shadows on the wall of the cave, this is a way to realize truth, to decide to fling through the tunnel and to pick a red pill, is a superior to enter a world of knowledge. As it is mentioned in the Matrix, You take the racy pill the story ends, you wake up in your bed and suppose whatever you want to believe.You take the red pill you stay in Wonderland and I show you how deep the rabbit-hole goes. In both the story and the movie, everyone is so close to knowledge of the truth that they just need to put their ass across the threshold nevertheless, it is the hardest step to enter door in their mind. It is a leap of faith into the unknown. And if he is compelled to look straight at the light, give he non have a pain in his eyeball which will discombobulate him turn away to take and take in the objects of vision which he can see, and which he will conceive to be in reality clearer than the things which are now being shown to him? This quote luxuriously illustrates that everything is decided in their mind, it is their choice, and although Socrates and Neo suffer some physical tenderness in making the journey, they are now in the world of knowledge, the world of real truth. The profound brilliance of the sun can provide other source of discomfort, it cannot be seen directly through human eyes due to the intensity of the power it emits. Similarly, Socrates and Neo experience some physical suf fering, such(prenominal) as, pain in their eyes and muscle problems while witnessing at true light for the first time. Why does my muscle hurt? Because you never utilise it. This conversation dramatizes the difficulty faced by people as they make the transition from the limited world they know to the real world. The process of accepting and being able to see the real world is arduous and comes about as a result of enormous changing in their notion and challenging knowledge of what they have languish accepted. Knowledge is a theory that many philosophers, over thousands of years, strive to experience.Knowledge can be extremely powerful, but it can be illusive as well however, once into the world of knowledge, people can distinguish the real truth from what they help as true. And the first he will see the shadows best, next the reflections of men and other objects in the water,Last of he will be able to see the sun, and he will contemplate him as he is. Plato believed that, as l ong as there is a gradual process of adapting to the light, Socrates will be available adjust, and to see through the essence of things.In Platos Allegory of Cave, Socrates is to the full aware of the truth after a process of adjusting to the light of real world, and then he returns to the cave and tries to teach to the others, the truth he has discovered. custody would say of him that up he went and down and they would put him to death. In kindle of his efforts, the chained prisoners reject the real world due to the pain that is brought to them by the lights, they prefer to maintain the illusion of the images they saw as truer representations than the objects in the real world. Similarly, Cypher, the character in the Matrix, has been dethawd to see the real world.Unlike people who accept the truth and try to fight the agents in the Matrix, Cypher wants to go keystone to Matrix without knowing anything about real world. The Matrix isnt real. I disagree, Trinity. I think that t he Matrix can be more real than this world. People who free themselves may not perceive reality, like Cypher, he chooses go back to the Matrix because there is less suffering than in the real world. The similar as the prisoners in Platos story, they would rather accept the illusion they see as truth, than go to the real world due to the pain it brings to them.Knowledge is the discover where people want to be but may not necessarily be able to be in there. Even for people in the world of truth, the real world, who may also be bogged down in their search for truth, as apart from what they accepted before this takes peoples mind to accept the changes from the previous knowledge held. In the Matrix, Neo does not confirm the truth in the real world where he is, until he accepts the training offered by Morpheus. Moreover, near the end of the movie, he makes the simple financial statement My nameis Neo in which he accepts himself in the real world instead of the name, Thomas Anderson, used in the Matrix a world build by computer programs. In comparison to the Allegory of the Cave, Socrates accepts the truth after he adapts to the real world and sees things clearly in the real world. As it is mentioned in the story Last he will be able to see the sun and he will contemplate him as he is No one can enlighten anyone else toward the world of knowledge, people have to enlighten themselves in their own minds.What is truth? The truth itself is a personal definition and realization of things in the world around us. right is a concept that seeks deeply to be defined in peoples minds everyone has their subjective opinion of what truth it is. In both the story and the movie, some people realize the real truth but others do not there is no right or wrong, just different view toward knowledge. Even now, the truth that people are accepting is not truth even truth itself may not be truth.
Taylor Lineberger Mrs. Eddins English 3 CP December 5, 2012 Post-Traumatic emphasis Disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder. PTSD usu all(prenominal)y occurs ulterior on close toone has seen or experienced a hurttic event that snarled the threat of injury and death. It is commonly associated with the soldiers who chip in fought in wars or conflicts. e really of the symptoms of PTSD are classified and categorized into three distinct groups live over, avoidance, and arousal. Some of these symptoms include flashbacks, repeated nightmares, detachment, hyper-vigilance, and being easily angered, a tenacious with m whatsoever an(prenominal) others. (PubMed Health, PTSD)(*1). According to a survey conducted by the Veterans Administration, some 500,000 of 3 million troops suffered from PTSD after the Vietnam war. The survey as well states that rates of divorce, suicide, and intoxicantism and drug addiction were higher among Vietnam veterans. (History, Vietnam War)(*2). We may neer fully know how much this disorder has truly affected our troops. closely veterans are not open about their condition, however some have accepted it and open up about it. So, how much does PTSD in truth affect someone? The trauma that causes PTSD is just as anomalous as the suffering individual themselves.Any fearful trauma gutter produce symptoms of PTSD. Being in the Vietnam War did not help any of this. These soldiers were torn away from the only things and the main office they had ever known and dropped into a foreign place where the situation was kill or be killed. They had no other choice but to be exposed to the unimaginable horrors that expect them. Cases of people with PTSD are famous for their abuse of drugs or alcohol however, ex-soldiers have an additional addiction that often lands them in trouble, or jailhouse an addiction to adrenaline.The one thing that ca employ them to have this condition may very well be the one thing that decides their fate. Insid e every person with PTSD is a clock bomb. It is merely a matter of time in the first place symptoms begin to show up. One may exhibit all manner of symptoms in nearly everything they do, and still live what appears to be a normal life. However, it doesnt take much to bring out mature symptoms of a case of PTSD. Retirement and additional stress can be a catalyst to cause the occurrence of symptoms to appear sooner than they ordinarily would. Wellness Directory MN, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)(*3). The war was over and thither was no place in particular to go (OBrien, 131). Thoughts of sorrow and outrage overwhelm the Vietnam veterans upon their return back home. Crushed from the horror of war, they have to fall down back to even bigger disappointments and sadness. Instead of the calm lives they lead before they left their country and the presence of warm and caring everyday life, most of them encounter empty beds, a cold family and overall loss. Already physically and emoti onally defeated, they find betrayal instead of recuperating trust.There is nothing to nurture them they do not find anything to rely on. Even in instances of accessary partners, the inevitable horrors of the war haunt them in sleep or scrape back to them in daydreaming. They all came back with multitude of disorders, mostly with a post-traumatic stress disorder with the common symptoms of recurring nightmares, hypersensitivity, avoidance behavior, and intrusive thoughts, contacts and memories-commonly plunge in war vets. The Things They Carried is a documentary novel written by Tim OBrien, a Vietnam War veteran.There are many stories at bottom the novel that show various examples of post-traumatic stress disorder. According to OBrien, upon their arrival home the veterans imagine, or even hallucinate, what things would have been like if they had not suffered through the war. Examples of such(prenominal) occurrences exist in the stories Speaking of Courage and The Man I Killed. Norman Bowker in Speaking of Courage dreams and fancies of talking to his ex-girlfriend, now married to another(prenominal) guy, and of his dead childhood friend, Max Arnold.He lives his unfulfilled dream of having his whirl beside him and having manly conversations with Max. He cannot stop day dreaming and dwelling in the past. Unemployed and overwhelmed by inferiority and disappointment, Bowker lacks a motivating force for life. emotionally stricken, he only finds satisfaction in driving slowly and repeatedly in circles around his old neighborhood in his fathers big Chevy, feeling safe, and remembering how things used to be when there has not been a war (OBrien, 158). These recurring events also spring memories f the beautiful lake where Norman used to spend a lot of time with his now married ex-girlfriend sallying forth Kramer and his high school friends. The lake invokes nostalgic and sentimental memories both of his girlfriend and his long gone drowned ruff friend, Max Ar nold. Nothing fulfills Norman Bowker anymore. Instead, a marvellous confusion has taken over his mind in the form of blear and chaos. He desperately needs someone to talk to. The guys go uncivilized in their unsuccessful attempts to maintain healthy balance of their minds and spirits.However, even though they index not realize it, or not at least at the time, most of the veterans end up lo tittle-tattle sanity. They act upon and laugh at the most bizarre things. In How to Tell a True War Story, Rat Kiley thinks of a gore of about twenty jillion dead gook fish as the the funniest thing in introduction history (OBrien, 65). The result of the post traumatic experience of seeing his nineteen-year-old best friend, Curt Lemons, body being blown up into pieces by a grenade, is that Rat Kiley takes his anger out on a baby buffalo by shooting him pieces by pieces multiple times.He shoots the animal, until nothing moved except the eyes, which were enormous, the pupils shiny black and d umb at which Dave Jensen, one of the two who collected Lemons body pieces off of the tree, gets childishly diverted (OBrien, 76-79). Not realizing his new condition of mental imbalance, Dave Jensen goes on to make jokes and sing about the Lemon Tree. This is a parallel to Dave Jensens insanity, OBrian, even after twenty years, still gets woken up by the memories of this event Twenty years later I can see the sunlight on Lemons face (OBrien, 80).As a consequence of PTSD, OBrien both despises and values the war. Even though Tim OBrien might not sound very convincing with the credibility of his own memories as a narrative, the post-traumatic stress disorder remains a scientific certainty. The results of the trauma soldiers suffered in the war, along with the emotional baggage, (grief, terror, love, and longing) show of all of the veterans post-war turmoil and heartache.Sources*1 Vorvick, Linda J. and Timothy Rogge. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PubMed Health. N. p. , 13 Feb . 2012. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. .*2 Vietnam War. History. N. p. , 2003. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. .*3 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Wellness Directory MN. N. p. , 2006. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. .
Sunday, February 24, 2019
The rainforest in conspiracy America is a vital resource besides it is be washed-up at a rate of 1/2 a one thousand million trees an hour. In this essay I aim to investigate why this is chance and the long term effects of it.Clearances for farming and ranching ar being made but, without the knowledge that the natives have, they are being done in an unsustainable way. First, they exact the trees and burn them hoping to enhance the fertilization of the land. Secondly, grass seed is sown. In age the soil becomes infertile so the farmers either move or widen their land destroying even more forest. This continues in a circular intent neither forest nor farmer benefit.Underneath the rainforest many minerals are found. Mining companies start to mine for these, but when these run out the companies cast out the mine leaving a large, ugly scar in the rainforest. mercantile drug abuse of the river as well as destroys the rainforest. To provide energy for all the mines and farms e tc. the river is dammed. In doing so it destroys millions of trees, killing animals which have made their homes in the vegetation and surround area. With the decomposing bodies of animals, the water soon becomes toxic and unsafe for human consumption. This directly proceeds the natives who use the water for drinking, washing and cleaning. Widespread rainforest clearance, mining of minerals and damming of rivers all affect the rainforest and most importantly the quality of soil.When trees are stripped outdoor(a) the soils natural fertilization pattern is also destroyed the soil becomes infertile very quickly. This means that rainforest that was once on that point can never be grown again. It is lost forever. The river water soon becomes polluted with toxins and also from the chemical waste from industries. The dam becomes clogged with sediment from the mines. Most of the uncivilised life is killed when the trees are felled and the rivers dammed. The native people are pushed out o f their homes by big businesses expanding the vast kernels of land they already have.A massive al-Qaida project know as Avanca Brasil (Advance Brazil) threatens the very existence of the amazon rainforest. The proposed project will upgrade and construct wise roads into the intragroup of the Amazon basin facilitating increased logging, mining and settlement. The project is likely to stop final loss of the Worlds largest rainforest.Unchecked de-forestation and destruction of the Amazonian rainforest poses an ecological casualty both for Brazil and the rest of the world. With less rainforest to absorb CO2, there is a build up of CO2 in the atmosphere. This creates a mantel which traps more outgoing long-wave radiation causing the earth to warm up. This is known as global warming. Therefore de-forestation affects not only the natives but all of mankind.The issue of de-forestation is global in another context capitalisation. For example, the well-defined grassland may be used to raise cattle to supply screak for McDonalds. The impact of large capitalist, multi-national companies like McDonalds (also mineral and pharmaceutical industries) cannot be underestimated.Sustainability is a priority if we want to keep the rainforest. Sustainable farming methods, like those of the natives, should be used. Mining should be kept to a minimum and roads should be small and few. Logging should only be allowed in a sustainable way ensuring that new trees are planted to replace those which have been felled the new trees must be planted within a certain amount of time before the fertilisation of the soil is lost. These simple steps should match that the small amount of existing rainforest remains.
Distinguishing bipolar and BPD Disorders Tonjanika Boyd North Carolina Central University Introduction bipolar and bare(a) disposition Disorder be surliness and personality complaint respectively, that have had some(prenominal) challenges amongst psychiatrist in differentiation. Not exclusively does the both discommodes sh argon some(prenominal) symptoms and associated impairments, in that location is also continuing debates in the psychiatric literature approximately whether the two disorders certainly represent different conditions (Hatchet, 2010).The following paper comp ars and contrasts Bipolar and Borderline Personality Disorders and discusses implications of differential diagnosis of the disorders that can lead to semipermanent effects for the patient cod to the funda rationally different discussion severally disorder needs. Comparison of Bipolar and Borderline Personality Disorder Bipolar Disorder According to the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Dis order, 4th variant Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), bipolar is a recurrent peevishness disorder featuring one or more successions of passion or mixed episodes of mania and picture (Antai-Otong, 2008).The bipolar disorders include, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic, and bipolar NOS disorders. Bipolar I disorder includes one or more frantic or mixed episodes, usually with a major depressive episode. Bipolar II disorder includes one or two major depressive episodes and at least(prenominal) one hypomanic episode. Cyclothymic disorder includes at least 2 old age of hypomanic periods that do non hear the criteria for the other disorders. Bipolar NOS, does non meet any of the other bipolar criteria. The etiology of Bipolar disorder has been researched and attested for many years and has many theories and perspectives.Causative factors include psychodynamic, existential, cognitive behavioral and developmental and complex biologic and genetic factors (Antai-Otong, 200 8). Signs and Symptoms (s/s) of Bipolar disorder varies from the character reference of episode they patient is experiencing. Major depressive episodes include a depressed mood or lose of interest for at least 2 weeks and five or more of the following Significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue, worthless feelings or inappropriate guilt, problem concentrating or recurrent thoughts of death.Manic episodes s/s includes, persistent elevated ill-natured mood of more than one week, increased self-esteem, decreased sleep, increased, increase spill and pressured speech, racing thoughts and ideas, distractibility, extreme goal-directed activity, excessive buying, sex and business investments (Pederson, 2012). In order to have successful interactment of bipolar disorder, a holistic approach is the best therapy. This includes, pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interpolations. Pharmacologic include mood stabilizers, anti-d epressants, anti-psychotics and electroconvulsive therapy.There has been a controversy with the go for of anti-depressants for treatment due to its effect with mood stabilizers. It is not a mainstay, barely is still prescribe when they are not sure if it is unipolar or bipolar, but becomes dangerous when switching from a depressive episode to a manic or hypomanic episode (Antai-Otong, 2011). Electroconvulsive therapy is the last utilize if the mood stabilizers and anti-psychotics fail or when an immediate intervention is needed. Psychotherapeutic intervention is mostly where the nursing care is used more frequently.Psychosocial and behavioral intervention, both(prenominal) fall under the umbrella of psychotherapeutic treatment and are definitive for more unconditional treatment outcomes. If a patient is in the neat phase, the nurses main focuses are safety and maintain a therapeutic environment that facilitates resolution of symptoms and minimizes complications. The nurse al so educated the client and family about medications, treatment options and other psychotherapies (Antai-Otong, 2011). Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)BPD originated in the 1930s, when it was used to reap patients who were on the border amid neuroses and psychosis. It is the most common complex and in earnest impairing personality disorders. According to DSM-IV, it is a pattern of instability in social relationships, self-image, affect and marked impulsivity (Swift, 2009). The etiology of BPD includes, genetic predisposition, family history of mood disorders and possibly related to bipolar disorder, physical and sexual abuse. About 2% of the cosmos experiences BPD and mostly female.The symptoms of BPD are maladaptive behavior learnt to make sense of the institution and to manage the persistent negative messages received (Eastwick & Grant, 2005). Signs and symptoms, consists of patterns of unstable interpersonal relationships, precaution of abandonment, splitting (love or hate), impulsiveness in sex, substance abuse, binge eating and heady driving, suicidal gestures, such(prenominal) as self-mutilation, intense mood changes that last for hours, continuing emptiness, intense anger and transient paranoid ideation (Pedersen, 2012).Managing BPD is challenging and can be emotionally and physically draining for the nurse involved and other members of the healthcare team. The nurse-patient relationship is frequently confrontational due to the patient difficulty with interpersonal relationships and dysfunctional emotional regulation, which results in aggression towards the nurse. Evidence has shown that people experiencing BPD are more likely to harm themselves than others (Swift, 2009). Treatment of BPD requires an integrated psychobiologic approach that includes, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions.This combination is called psychopharmacologic therapy. There have been many variations of drugs used to treat BPD, due to limited success. Th ere has been limited success in the use of psychotropic medications in clients with borderline personality disorder. Mood stabilizers, anti-depressants and anti-psychotics are only effective in providing relief in the symptoms of difficulty controlling behaviors, impulsivity, self-injurious behaviors and depression (Antai-Otong, 2011).Diagnostic Dilemma of Bipolar and BPD Disorder According to the criteria outlined in the DSM-IV-TR there is a systematic remnant among patients with BPD and bipolar disorder. It was found that patients with bipolar II exhibited mood swings that varied between euthymia, elation and depression and mood swings with BPD rotated between euthymia, anger and anxiety. A diagnosis between the two boiled down to how the emotional and behavioral instability exhibited by a client is conceptualized.In other words, a counselor must decide whether the symptoms are best attributed to an acute mood disorder or they are only if the latest manifestations of a more co ntinuing problem (Hatchett, 2010). The challenge is not the case of being able to rule out acute episodes of mania, but when assessing the possibility of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder or a mixed episode. The actual definition of rapid cycling is often misunderstood in the mental health community and ruling out mixed episode is flat a greater test in abstracting between bipolar and BPD, due to many patients not having an accurate history of their symptoms.This is important because, according to DSM-IV-TR (2000) The exclusive experiences rapidly alternating moods (sadness, irritability, euphoria) accompanied by symptoms of a Manic episodeand a Major Depressive Episode (p. 362). It becomes difficult and nearly impossible to distinguish a mixed episode from the chronic anger and dysphoria common to those with BPD. Repercussions for differentiating between the disorders for treatment are evident for counselors who are responsible for creating and implementing treatment plans. faith ful diagnosis is fundamental for effective treatment.A diagnosis of Bipolar disorder is hardened with psychoactive medication, whereas for BPD patients, that is not effective as a mainstay of therapy. When BPD is fittingly diagnosed, it encompasses a more holistic approach of intervention strategies, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Those who consider BPD to be a variant of bipolar disorder contend that treatment should proceed with mood stabilizers and atypical anti-psychotics and those on the other side of the debate recommend an intensive psychotherapy model, such as DBT (Hatchett, 2010).Conclusion Careful consideration to distinguish more accurately the difference between an acute mood disorder and a more chronic and pervasive personality disorder through the diagnostic process is essential. A mood disorder is discerned by distinct episodes of mania, hypomania, or depression that occur for specified periods and a personality disorder is characterized by persistent and slopped patterns of maladaptive behavior and intrapersonal experience that influence areas of functioning.I feel the debate between differential diagnosis of these disorders can at least shift towards a solution by considering an overhaul in the definition and placement of mood and personality disorders in axis of rotation I and II. Through Axis II was developed to encourage clinicians to consider more enduring personality characteristics that may impact treatment, as Fowler et al (2007) pointed out, some Axis I disorders are actually more chronic than many Axis II disorders, which are more likely to remit than is commonly believed.Also, I noticed through my research that maybe there needs to be another type of assessment tool created when assessing patients for mood or personality disorders or particularised training on how to distinguish between BPD an bipolar disorder to keep in line more accurate diagnosis. For the DSM-V now being drafted, proposals have been made to e ither eliminate personality disorders altogether or integrate theme into Axis I. In that scenario BDP might be reclassified as a mood or impulse control disorder (Hatchett, 2010).Distinguishing between Bipolar and BPD disorder is remarkable for the patient, treatment teams, family and mental health community, due to the major difference in the treatment plans for each disorder. Recognizing which disorder the patient has is fundamental in positive outcomes as they progress through the proper comprehensive psychopharmacologic therapy. References American psychiatrical Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. , text rev. ). doi10. 1176/appi. books. 9780890423349.Antai-Otong, D. (2008). psychiatric Nursing Biological and Behavioral Concepts, 2nd ed. , Thomson, Delmar Learning. Hatchett, G. T. (2010). Differential Diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder from Bipolar Disorder Journal of Mental health Counseling, 323, 189-205. Pederson, D. D. (2012). Psych Notes Clinical Pocket Guide, 3rd ed. , F. A. Davis Co. Philadelphia. Swift, E. (2009). Borderline personality disorder aetiology, presentation and therapeutic relationship Mental Health Nursing, 133, 22-25.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Table of Contents Executive summary2 Problem identification and digest 3 Statement of major problems4 7. Generation and evaluation of alternate dissolving genes 5 7. 1 Reducing reliance on gross sales pinch5 7. 2 Introduce aggroup up ground targets and reward systems5 7. 3 Survey sales pluck on season allocated for different melodic line aspects6 7. 4 Set maximum tot of voluntary additional naturalise hours6 8. Recommendations7 9. Implementations 8 10. Concluding Remarks9 11. References10 12. Turnitin Originality report11-12 Executive summaryAnnette, the impudently appointed HR manager feels that terry, the company sales manager, despite sweet his lineage and being passionate ab come forward the consummation he does, is a pull inaholic. She is afraid that Terry leave behind not be able to redeem up with this hectic schedule and that it would soon affect his wellness and cause life balance. Even though his meet(a) habits shine a validating light on the comp any, it gives a certain peer pressure to his sales police squad to wee equally commodious hours even when Terry does not insist that anyone crap as dour as him.Furtherto a greater extent, Annett does not mark off with what the CEO intends to do, to give Terry recognition and reward for his dedication and great(p) result, as it is a result of utmost(prenominal) meet habits. However, the CEO feels that no one is forcing Terry to work long hours, and might think of it as legal as it is a voluntary effort. Problem identification and analysis Harvard Analytical Framework for Human vision Management Stake toter Long term person well-being disrupted edit out internal surgical incisional stress unnecessary pressure from Terry leads to team resignation societal effect educes effectiveness of sales team from idle pressure Long term case-by-case well-being disrupted burn out internal departmental stress unnecessary pressure from Terry leads to team resignation societal effect crucifys effectiveness of sales team from un payable pressure HR outcomes Commitment to work long hours referable to recognise of extreme work attitude Non compliance to raiseon due to voluntary long hours Creates competent work draw out in soon run due to extra hours HR outcomes Commitment to work long hours due to rewarding of extreme work attitude Non compliance to formula due to voluntary long hoursCreates competent work military capability in short run due to extra hours Choices rewarding mien conjecture design Possible lack of technology in job Uses new-fangled sales as main cash blend generator Choices rewarding carriage job design Possible lack of technology in job Uses new sales as main cash flow generator Interests CEO HR manager TerryHRM policyHR outcomesLong-Term Sales Forcerewarding behavi Job desginCommitment Individual Compliancewell-being Situational Factors * Long work hours * Legislation * Business Strategy * dependant on sales and conditions * sales target philosophy * Task applied science * societal values Situational Factors * Long work hours * Legislation * Business Strategy * dependant on sales and conditions * sales target * philosophy * Task Technology * societal values Human resourceCongruenc Source Beer et al (1984) One of the maven problems that argon shown in the case is the willingness to reward extreme work behavior in the g every locatingnance. This positive rein extortment of Terrys working behavior will be indirectly cover to others that to gain recognition in the company, you would have to adopt extreme working behaviors like Terry.Furthermore, there is legislation that defines the working hours of a full time employee. However, the main problem is that organization allows voluntary appendd working hours as it is deemed beneficial for the company. A third base problem is that the company is relying heavily on its sales force to capture profit. These could be due to high sales targets given by focal poin t which Terry evoke only chance on by increasing working hours inordinately. Statement of major problems It can be derived that the company is relying heavily on its sales force, possibly on direct sales and new wonters quite of recurring and retention of clients.This would be directly linked to the perceived charter for Terry to increase working hours dramatically to fulfill his individual sales targets. Another Critical issue lies in the voluntary non-compliance of legislation. This, coupled with higher(prenominal)(prenominal) vigilance of not only accepting extreme work habits, only with the intention of rewarding, would indirectly tell other employees that reward and recognition comes with extreme input of work hours. Furthermore, the sales force is obliged to work equally long hours like Terry, which would eventually result in this being custom and practice.This could be due to the setting of strong individual exercise measurements in terms of sales clinched per mon th. 7. Generation and evaluation of alternate solutions 7. 1 Reducing reliance on sales force. There is a doughy reliance on sales force to secure customers for the company. Instead of ever sourcing new customers to meet individual targets, the sales force could work on retaining alive customers by practicing relationship merchandise as it is more approach effective to do so.Relationship marketing is most applicable when the customer has choices of their suppliers and electric switch is coming and there is a continued need for the receipts ( pluck. 2002). A great example would be the research done by Moon-Koo (2004) on Korean mobile telecommunications services which showed that the industry believes that the crucial future marketing strategy was to try to retain real customers by increasing customer verity and customer value.Payne and Adrian (1994) concluded that securing of new clients is merely the first beat in the marketing process, the crux lies in retaining the custo mer, with organizations often confirming that existing customers are not only more profitable than new customers, only when also easier to sell to. The company should come up with customer loyalty schemes to retain customers, which will help the sales force with achieving sales targets 7. 2 Introduce team based targets and reward systems Another alternate solution would be to reduce individual target and rewards, and introduce team based sales target and reward system.Hackman & Walton (1986) suggested that successful group work will contribute to the growth and personal well-being of team members. By bring down individual target and reward systems, not removing, it would get word the sales force meet the minimum amount. However, with the team based targets and rewards in steer and scale slightly higher than the sum of all individual targets, the sales force would be motivated to strive towards achieving team based goals. Research has shown teams with difficult goals perform opt imally when incentives are convolutioned (Knight, 2001).Performance is directly influenced by goals, but incentives did not. The offer of an incentive increased the commitment of most teams with difficult goals, proving to be highly beneficial (Knight, 2001). 7. 3 Survey sales force on time allocated for different job aspects It would be best to survey the sales force to define which area of their job takes up the most time. Asking for the employees feedback to improve the work system has always proved invaluable, with research showing that 360- spirit level feedback boosting communications and performance of their managers and organizations (Bernardin & Beatty, 1987).The 360-degree approach shows that without feedback there can only be minimal diverseness, and that various constituencies can provide diverse viewpoints and information (London, 1993). In the research done by Marshall (1999), there is a change in communication-related technology, especially in the 1990s where there was an improvement in communication between salespeople and customers due to the reduction in salespeople travel requirements. By asking the sales force for their opinions, new systems, process and new technologies can be armed to help besides time and energies.If these new technologies are inserted into the right parts of the job, such as online video calling existing customers to confirm advertising assures instead of travelling to meet them, a super portion of time would be saved without compromising on the attribute of customer service. 7. 4 Set maximum amount of voluntary additional work hours According to Fairwork Australia website, a full time employee work an mediocre of 38 hours per week, also under the National Employment Standards, Maximum eekly hours of work is 38 hours per week, plus reasonable additional hours. Terry is working 60 hours a week, 22 hours more than required. Even though it is voluntary, it is still a considerable health hazard to overwork consiste ntly. Sparks et al. (1997) suggests that there is a fine but significant positive trend that links increased hours of work to increased health symptoms. Buell & Breslow (1960) also found that employees who work in inactive positions for extended hours suffer from health problems due to the lack of exercise.Having research proving that overwork consistently provides a multitude of health hazards, it can be inflexible that Terry is not taking reasonable care of his own health and safety which can be found under the work health and safety act Division 4 section 28- Duties of workers, while at work, a worker must (a) Take reasonable care for his or her own health and safety. A solution to prevent employees from voluntary overworking is to set a maximum amount of voluntary additional work hours.Regardless of whether employees are meeting their sales target within the normal working hours, they are allocated a maximum set of extra hours to either over perform or chase up to their sale s targets. Recommendations In order to maintain the efficiency of the business while not impacting the overall performance of the sales department, it is recommended that a maximum amount of additional voluntary work hours be set in order to prevent working excessive extra hours as custom and practise.A 360 degree feedback should be carried out on the sales force to ascertain the most time consuming aspects of the job, and to develop solutions and put in place technology to save time to increase the efficiency of the sales force. Higher management would need to review the give away performance indicators of the sales force, and reduce individual goals and set in place challenging team goals with additional incentives to motivate the sales force to achieve more in synergy.This would go hand in hand with the launching of customer loyalty schemes to retain existing customers, and training for the sales force would be needed to allow them to utilise the loyalty schemes to the companys advantage. Implementations Reward Terry for dedication to firm ASAP Set in maximum additional voluntary work hours and explain to organization and work life balance Immediately after rewarding Terry 360 degree feedback of sales department Depending on how big the sales department is. Estimated 6 months. Review KPIs and structure to team settings 1 year Creation of customer loyalty schemes In conjunction with restructuring to team goals Terry would need to rewarded for his stellar(a) performance for the company, where the recognition need to be structured politically even as to prevent others from thinking Terry is being rewarded due to him set in excessive hours. A follow up to that would be to impose maximum additional voluntary work hours after a lighten up work life balance talk to the company.This would put in place that to over achieve is good, but the organization does not support extreme work behaviors. The next step would be to hire an external agent to conduct a 360 feedback on the sales department to seek to reduce time hoarding elements of the job. It is essential to review new technologies and how they would assist the department in carrying out their jobs. Proper training would have to be provided to ensure the sales forces are kept up to date with the new technologies.After the aspects of the job have been redefined, higher management should review the KPI of the sales department and restructure more into collectivism with individual hybrid elements to motivate the sales force to work in teams to achieve even harder goals that is ever achievable by their own. This would go in conjunction with the sales force developing customer loyalty schemes as the sales force would know what attracts their clients the most and would consequently be the best equipped to develop the loyalty schemes. Concluding remarksIt is of prevalent importance to not undermine the value of Terrys work however measures must be put in place to dress extreme work habit s. The core structure of the a salesperson job aspect would need to be reviewed, so as to determine areas which can be revised with the addition of new technology to help save the time and energies of the work force. This, coupled with the restructuring the performance indicators to embrace a more collective approach by placing difficult team goals which when achieved, give higher incentives. This would motivate employees to work together in teams.Lastly, the organization needs to prepare that retaining existing customers is more profitable than attracting new customers, and the company will take in from requesting the sales force to create a customer loyalty scheme, and to bear it into a core component of the sales department duties. References 1. Bemardin, J. H. , & Beatty, R. W. (1987). coffin nail subordinate appraisals enhance managerial productivity? Sloan Management Review, 28(4), 63-73. 2. Bud, P. & Breslow, L. (1960). Mortality from coronary thrombosis heart disease in California men who work long hours. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 11, 61 5-626. 3. Hackman, J. R. amp Walton, R. E. (1986) Leading groups in organizations. In Designing Effective Work Groups, Goodman, P. (ed. ), pp. 72119. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco 4. Kim, Moon-Koo(03/2004). The effects of customer felicity and switching barrier on customer loyalty in Korean mobile telecommunication services. Telecommunications policy(0308-5961),28(2),145. DOI10. 1016/j. telpol. 2003. 12. 003 5. Leonard L. Berry (2002) Relationship Marketing of Services. Perspectives from 1983 and 2000, Journal of Relationship Marketing, 11, 59-77 6. London, Manuel(1993). 360-degree feedback as a competitive advantage.Human resource management(0090-4848),32(2-3),353. DOI10. 1002/hrm. 3930320211 7. Marshall, GregW(01/1999). The Current State of Sales Force Activities. industrial marketing management(0019-8501),28(1),87. DOI10. 1016/S0019-8501(98)00025-X 8. Knight, D. (04/2001). THE RELATIONSHIP OF TEAM G OALS, INCENTIVES, AND EFFICACY TO STRATEGIC RISK, tactical IMPLEMENTATION, AND PERFORMANCE. . Academy of Management journal(0001-4273),44(2),326. DOI10. 2307/3069459 9. Sparks, K. , Cooper, C. , Fried, Y. and Shirom, A. (1997), The effects of hours of work on health A meta-analytic review.Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70391408. inside10. 1111/j. 2044-8325. 1997. tb00656. x 10. Payne, Adrian(1994). Relationship Marketing Making the guest total. Managing service quality(0960-4529),4(6),29. Turnitin Originality Report OHS case studyby Yuxuan Huang From Individual Work health and Safety Case (BUS320 BUS320 Advanced Human Resource Perspectives (s1, 2013)) * Processed on 12-Mar-2013 519 PM WST * ID 311507218 * Word Count 2170 Similarity Index 16% Similarity by Source meshSources 12% Publications 9% StudentPapers 12% sources 1 2% stone (Internet from 17-Apr-2012) ttp//onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1111/j. 2044-8325. 1997. tb00656. x/abstract 2 1% mark of f (publications) Stacie Furst. Virtual team effectiveness a proposed research agenda, instruction Systems Journal, 10/1999 3 1% match (Internet from 21-Jan-2013) http//www. monarorfs. org. au/new-machi? limitstart=15 4 1% match (publications) Kate Sparks. The effects of hours of work on health A meta-analytic review, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 12/1997 5 1% match (student paper from 30-Apr-2012) Submitted to University of Sydney on 2012-04-30 6 1% match (student papers from 08-Sep-2011)Submitted to Macquarie University on 2011-09-08 7 1% match (Internet from 06-Jul-2010) http//jom. sagepub. com/cgi/content/refs/36/1/5 8 1% match (Internet from 06-May-2009) http//members. chello. nl/e. vanoverveld/images/Thesis. PDF 9 1% match (publications) Warech, M. A.. Self-monitoring and 360-degree ratings, The Leadership Quarterly, 199824 10 1% match (Internet from 10-Mar-2013) http//ro. uow. edu. au/cgi/viewcontent. cgi? article=1301& background=commpapers&sei- 11 1% match (student papers from 12-May-2010) Submitted to University of Western Sydney on 2010-05-12 12 1% match (publications) Marshall, G.W.. The Current State of Sales Force Activities, Industrial Marketing Management, 199901 13 1% match (student papers from 25-Oct-2009) Submitted to Curtin University of Technology on 2009-10-25 14 1% match (Internet from 02-Apr-2010) http//www. wairc. wa. gov. au/Agreements/Agrmnt2005/PBF016. medical student 15 1% match (publications) Karjaluoto, Heikki, Chanaka Jayawardhena, Matti LeppAniemi, and Minna PihlstrAm. How value and trust influence loyalty in wireless telecommunications industry, Telecommunications Policy, 2012. 16 1% match (student papers from 11-Sep-2009) Submitted to Univerza v Ljubljani on 2009-09-11 7 1% match (Internet from 16-Apr-2009) http//dissertations. port. ac. uk/357/01/BelliardC. pdf 18 1% match (Internet from 20-Feb-2009) http//www. busmgt. ulster. ac. uk/modules/bmg775m2/fig. doc 19 1% match (Internet from 18-Jan-2 013) http//www. aom. pace. edu/amj/April2001/knight. pdf 20 1% match (Internet from 29-Apr-2012) http//www. vawo. nl/documents/OccupationalstressAustraliauniversities. pdf 21 1% match (publications) Lee, Hyung Seok. Major Moderators Influencing the Relationships of Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty, Asian Social Science, 2013.
Sylvia Plath was innate(p) in Boston, Massach engagetts in 1932 to Austrian pargonnts. She studied at the prestigious Smith College with a scholarship and in 1955 she went to Cam yoke University where she met and subsequent married Ted Hughes. Plaths life was one of success, and intense ambition and utter(a)ionism. In an early journal entry, aged 16, she described herself as The girl who would be God. Her desire to be a unblemished writer and a perfect charwoman is set however in her chthonicstanding of the constraints placed on wo men in the 50s.The early death of her father when she was just 8, and the combination of upkeep and adoration she felt towards him had an immense and lasting effect on her life, and by and by he appears as a major theme in twain her poetry and prose fashions. The cost quake was first outpouringd in England in 1963 under the pseudonym Victoria Lucas. It received lukewarm reviews with to the highest degree critics highlighting the private yet detached voice of refreshful.An anonymous review stated it record so much equivalent the truth that it is substantial to disassociate her from Esther Greenwood, the I of the story, that she had the gift of creation able to determine and yet to watch herself she stern feel the desolation and yet relate this to the landscape of everyday life. This shows how the clean was plann to be autobiographical even ahead it was kn consume who the author was, and in advance comparisons of plot construct and the life of the author could be make. This shows how the tone, which some whitethorn say is confessional, leads lectors to analyse the work from a psycho-biographical stand localize.You can read in addition Analysis of Literary Devices of Jane EyreLaurence Lerner equates the drug withdrawal, which the anonymous reviewer highlights, with Esthers neurosis deriving from her business office as satirist of the world around her, and he sees her Bell Jar as one of a detached observer . Critics also comp bed it to JD Salingers The Catcher In The Rye, be capture of the tuition of it as a critique of college life and establishing identity, and also the existential undertones of the preponderating voice are similar in twain texts. Robert Taubman wrote in The national leader that The Bell Jar was a clever first novel he first feminist novel in the Salinger mood. Linda Wagner saw The Bell Jar as in structure and intent a highly accomplished bildungsroman , or a rites of passage novel, with the construct focusing entirely on the education and maturation of Esther Greenwood, Plaths novel uses a chronological and necessarily episodic structure to keep Esther at the centre of alone action. Other book of factss are fragmentary, subordinate to Esther and her developing consciousness, and are sh confess provided through their effects on her as central character.No incident is included which does non invite her maturation. Modern criticism also focuses on politica l and feminist criticisms of the novel. Alan Sinfield explores ideological intersections mingled with confederacy and the arts, and recognises Plath as critiquing the construction of gender role arguments, taken up by some contemporary feminist critics. Plath is seen as articulating m either of the thoughts and odors m whatsoever an(prenominal) women admit about the constraints, opportunities and contradictions of womens role in society. M any shake interpreted The Bell Jar as semi-autobiographical.It is impossible to ignore the similarities between the life of Plath and that of Esther, the main protagonist of the novel. The novel par altogetherels her twentieth year closely perfectly. Plath was awarded a spot as a guest editor at Mademoiselle magazine during her junior year at Smith, as Esther win a fashion magazine competition to work on it in New York for a month. Both had been, on the surface, a model daughter, best-selling(predicate) in school, earning straight As a nd winning the best prizes. She even went to Smith on scholarship endowed by Olive Higgins Prouty, perhaps the model for Esthers patron, Philomena Guinea.That summer, however, she most succeeded in killing herself by sw anyowing sleeping pills, par eithereling the suicide attempt in the novel. After a period of recovery involving electroshock and psych new(prenominal)apy Plath seemed to effect herself again, graduating from Smith with honours and winning a Fulbright scholarship to study at Cambridge, England. However, her troubles returned to haunt her throughout her life, and she committed suicide in 1963. Plath recognised her own in cogency to write about any amour other than her own experiences.In her journals she referred to this as the curse of my vanity. She talked of, my inability to lose myself in a character, a situation. invariably myself, myself, myself. This makes any reading into The Bell Jar all the more(prenominal) poignant, because Plaths a couple of(prenominal ) prose works are more directly link up to real life than most fiction. The theme of entrapment forms the central see to it of The Bell Jar. Plath constructs the analogy in Chapter 15 where Esther, the central character, concludes that I would be sitting under the very(prenominal) glass price jar, stewing in my own sour air.Plaths use of the sibilant develops stewing and sour evoke strong sensual reactions in the endorser as if they were hit by a pungent sickly smell. The Bell Jar take ons the entrapment Esther feels at the hands of society and its expectations of women, and also entrapment by men and the possibility of entrapment by fryren. The first of these could be understood as representing Esthers suffocation at the hands of societal compress and the general oppressive atm of the 50s, especially for women. It must be noned that at the end of the mid-fifties the average age of wedding ceremony had actually fallen to 20, and was still dropping.It was not uncommon fo r girls to drop out of college or high school to attach, in fact education was sometimes seen as a bar to marriage. During all of the forties and fifties housewifery tasks were glorified as proof of a complete woman in the media. In America at the end of the fifties the birth invest was overtaking Indias. Increased affluence allowed people to run through four, five, six children, shown in the novel by the inclusion body of Dodo Conway, a catholic live who has 6 children she fascinated Esther because of her ever increasing family and stoic acceptance of her situation.By the 1960s, the employment of women was rather the norm than the exception, moreover they were holding mostly irregular jobs, to help put their husbands through college, or widows supporting families. For such an thought-provoking and talented woman like the protagonist of the novel this would inevitably cause a clash of ideals between those of wider society and her own. Society assumes a woman pass on marry. The heroine of the novel is besieged by the influences that propagate the myth that the decide of a womans existence is a husband, a house and having children.After Esthers release from the mental hospital, chum salmons final words to her are I wonder who youll marry now . . . youve been here. This is similar to the feelings of Esthers beget, for universe in a mental make has a certain social stigma attached to it. The opinion that no man give want a woman with baggage or problems is similar to the view presented by Mrs Willard that no man would want a woman with sexual experience. This adds up to the opinion that all women should be clean, pure, blameless and naive for their men.Also, if Esther were to choose not to marry and not follow the guidelines society attempts to entrap her in, is to go against societys expectations and to commit a kindly of sin. Writing to her generate from Smith, Plath agonised over which to choose? -meaning a career or a family? The central fi ction of The Bell Jar, the fig tree, is Plaths literary portrayal of this dilemma. from each one fig represents an option, a future to be a famous poet, an editor, or to be a wife and mother. Each is mutually exclusive and only one can be picked.As Esther (very much an denotation of her source here) hesitates, debating with herself, the figs began to wrinkle and go black, and, one by one, they plopped to the ground at her feet. Rejection of any option was difficult because she wanted it all. The conclusion that the figs rot and die aligns the image tonally with the rest of the novel. Esther shows her desire to have it all and her refusal to limit herself when she says to Buddy, Ill be brief back and forth between one mutually exclusive thing and another for the rest of my days. In her own life, Plath attempted to achieve both career and family. There were times, her letters and the remembrances of her family and friends reveal, that domestic life alone seemed to run her. She w as a perfectionist at housekeeping as she had always been at her college work and at writing, moreover at other times the terrene savage her and the viciousness in the kitchen that she describes in Lesbos sets in. At times she revelled in cosmos cowlike and maternal, only when resentment against their demands on her time and her creativity is evident too.Esther concludes that the societal pressure that she feels at her prestigious College, where the girls pocketbook covers must match the material of their dresses and all the girls wait with excitement for their invitations to the proms, is not so different to the pressure she feels in the asylum. What was there about us she wonders so different from the girls playing bridge and studying in the college . . . Those girls too sat under a bell jar of a mannequin. Plath explicitly shows the reader that the Bell Jar is not simply one of depression, save also one of conformity. The entrapment that Esther feels is also sexual.This i s partly ca apply by Buddys sexuality and effect, for Esther and Joan react to him and eventually rebel against him by exploring alternating(a) sexual methods. Joan becomes a lesbian (though whether this is a direct result of her and Buddys blood is debatable), and Esther asserts her sexual emancipation through get birth control. For her this symbolises female empowerment. In contrast to her previous attempt to free her sexuality by allowing Constantin to make believe her, she will be her own active agent of change in freeing herself from the strict social codes for women.Esther begins to feel a disillusionment with men, later(prenominal) on her realisation that Buddy Willard is a hypocrite, she concludes I knew that in spite of all the roses and kisses and restaurant dinners a man showered on a woman before he married her, what he secretly wanted when the wedding swear out ended was for her to flatten out underneath his feet like Mrs Willards kitchen mat. This kitchen mat which is a utilitarian goal, easily repaired or replaced, is used as a metaphor for a woman.This introduces a central theme of the novel, that of women being dominated by men. The image of being flattened is used umpteen times in the novel to show the effect of men on women. It is used again in Chapter 5 when Esther describes how she felt dull and flat and full of shattered visions aft(prenominal) a disappointing date with Buddy. The kitchen mat that Esther describes is a beautiful hand made rug that Buddys mother made. She spent lots of time making this mat, but when she is finished she just puts it on the kitchen floor for people to wipe their feet on.Esther sees this as a symbol of male oppression and the concomitant feeling that vigor a woman makes or does is of any merit. It is when around Buddy that quintessence seems most repressed. This adds to the overall sense of confinement that Esther feels, but this aspect is all self-inflicted. One obstacle that Esther must over come is her idealised and fairy-tale view of amative relationships, in which she defines her and Buddys relationship in terms of a single kiss. The word flattened evokes connotations like beaten, weak and subjugated. Esther is, as most women during the fifties, expected to marry.Esther Greenwood sees herself as something other than primarily a housewife, and she uses a lot of her energy to try to subjugate marrying the one she is expected Buddy Willard. The word bell written belle was used during the nineteenth century for the belle of the ball. It was meant to be a positive term in American culture, and was used to describe a ladylike southern woman with many suitors. This was a woman who knew her role and was happy to be the desired object of her lover and to put all her energies into looking by and by her man and her family.In this interpretation, the Belle Jar could represent societal pressure to conform to this ideal and the confine feelings these women my encounter. Buddy is the main representation of dominant oppressive male sexuality. He stifles her intellectually, telling her a poem is just a piece of dust, and plays a dominant sexual role by exposing himself to her. Marco is a much more violent depiction of male sexuality, a woman-hater who attempts to rape Esther. He holds power over her, he is invulnerable because of his financial power and threatening sexuality, and brands her a slut.Critics have interpreted him as simply a more violent extension of Buddy Willlard, aggressive in his contempt for Esther and her sexuality, whereas Buddy is more clear-sighted and passive. Plath parallels the earlier proposal by Buddy. Whereas Buddy asks for Esthers hand in marriage in exchange for her identity and freedom, Marco offers her a diamond, a symbol of marriage, in exchange for her sexual independence. This feeling or entrapment by men is related to a form of domestic entrapment. One way this is shown is in Esthers vista towards having children. Plat h presents having children as another form of entrapment.When describing child birth language from the semantic fields of confinement and unnaturalness are used. Esther describes childbirth itself as a long, blind, doorless and windowless corridor of botheration . . . waiting to open up and conclude her in again. This shows how she sees children as decrease perception and confining their mothers in a trap they cannot even see out of because it is so all encompassing. The mother is described in cold terms with her spider-fat stomach and two little ugly spindly legs maculation making an unhuman whooing noise. This makes the reader feel sympathy towards this grotesque but pitiful monster.Robert Scholes interprets the language Plath uses in the childbirth as that of defamiliarisation. In this scene, for example, the narrator describes the delivery as if it were happening for the first time in history. From the point of view of the uninitiated observer, childbirth seems to be a frig htening religious rite in which a dark fuzzy thing finally emerges from the rend shaven place between the womans legs. It could be construed that Plath is trying to show the reader that having children is a form of martyrdom, sacrificing your self-identity for your children.A woman dies as a special(prenominal) kind of woman when she bears a child, and she continues to die as the child feeds literally and metaphorically on her. Indeed, many of her poems depict childlessness as a kind of perfection. In Edge (Ariel), The woman is perfected . . . Each dead child coiled . . . She has folded them back into her body. This childless perfection also often signals death in her poetry, showing the view that a woman has no choice but to procreate, because if she does not, or if she changes her mind folding them back into her body, she must die.Plaths fear of procreativity was, in large part, a fear of a resultant loss of creativity. Esther voices Plaths fear, I . . . remembered Buddy Willard saying in a sinister, knowing way that after I had children I would feel differently, I wouldnt want to write poems any more. So I began to think maybe it was true that when you were married and had children it was like being brainwashed, and afterwards you went about numb as a break ones back in some private, totalitarian state. The inclusion of totalitarianism evokes even stronger feelings of entrapment and being controlled by extraneous forces.Children are also shown to represent entrapment in the inclusion of the miscarried babies in nursing bottles that Buddy takes her to see. These images represent womens traditional choices in life and the subsequent entrapment. Esther describes these in her usual detached voice, the baby in the first bottle had a large white head bent over a tiny curled up body the size of a frog. These bottles are similar to the central image of the Bell Jar, and further highlight the reading that children lead to entrapment. This is also shown in Stopp ed Dead (Winter Trees), A fink of brakes.Or is it a birth cry? . It seems Plath has the opinion that the minute a baby is born the mothers life ends in a squeal of brakes. national entrapment can also be a trap of routine and chores. In Chapter 7 Esther notes how she cannot cook, or dance, or sing or know of a sudden hand, all the things that she would need to live her life by her mothers standards. Plaths letters to her mother and her novel both make it explicitly clear that Plath was confused and forbid by the necessity of defining herself as a woman. In 1949, at age seventeen, she wrote, I am afraid of getting married.Spare me from prep three meals a dayspare me from the relentless cage of routine and rote. I want to be free. Plath herself wrote in her journal that it was as if domesticity had choked me. It could be said that her decision to finally end her life by sticking her head in a gas oven is a perfect symbolisation of that aspect of her experience. Plaths two-dimens ional characterisation of Mrs Greenwood as a hard working and well intentioned woman, but one very much controlled by the guidelines society gave her regarding her role as a woman.She feels that Esthers English Major will not help her get a job, and that the only way that she will get a career is by learning shorthand. Esther would then be in demand among all the up and coming young men, but she instinctively rebels against this view, I hated the idea of serving men in any way. I wanted to dictate my own thrilling letters. She is witting of the injustice in the occupational sphere, and refuses to abide by this unfair parceling of status in society. The Bell Jar could also be construed as the bell jar of the characters depression.Depression and mental illness are almost universally described by the imagery of entrapment, from Bertha Mason, the mad alter ego of Jane confine in the attic in Jane Eyre to the imagery of depression as a suffocating black cloud by Elizabeth Wurtzell in her 1996 portrait of depression. Esthers depression begins to richly emerge in Chapter 2, where she describes how she begins to feel while watching Doreen, her sexually wolflike friend and Lenny get more and more crazy about each-other. She compares herself to a black dot signifying a feeling of insignificance, shame and dirtiness.Plath uses the analogy of travelling past from Paris on an express caboose to describe Esthers increasing feeling of detachment and unimportance every second the city gets smaller and smaller, only you feel its really you getting smaller and smaller and lonelier and lonelier, rushing away from all those lights and that excitement at about a million miles an hour. . This gives the reader the feeling of Esther helplessly falling into a deep depression, where the excitement of everyday life does not affect her.On Esthers way to Buddy at the sanatorium she describes the blackened land-scape and its effect on her mood. . . . the countryside, already deep un der old falls of snow, turned us a bleaker shoulder, and as the fir trees crowded big money from the grey hills to the road edge, so darkly green they looked black, I grew gloomier and gloomier. cytosine is often used to symbolise death, it could have been used in this exemplify for many reasons. Firstly, it could be because she is travelling to a TB sanatorium where many must have died.This illness and death that she is travelling toward is inextricably colligate with sin in The Bell Jar, with Buddy being punished for his issue with a waitress by his TB and Esther punished for losing her virginity by haemorrhaging, so this hollowet of death is particularly profound. Secondly, the snow could also foreshadow Esthers later suicide attempt from an overdose or sleeping pills in Chapter 13. The crowding fir trees could have been used to depict a feeling of entrapment.Esthers depression is later shown by her lack of motivation to do anything, even change her enclothe or wash her ha ir. This melancholic inertia is shown in the paragraph I crawled back into bed and pulled the sheet over my head. But even that didnt shut out the light, so I buried my head under the fantasm of the pillow and pretended it was night. I couldnt see the point of getting up. Esther feels confine by her depression, it sedates her so fully that she does not even see any way out of it.Recurrent mirror and light images measure Esthers descent into the stale air beneath the bell jar. In the first chapter, when Esther returns from Lennys flatbed and enters the mirrored elevator of the Amazon Hotel, she notices a big, smudgy-eyed Chinese woman staring idiotically into my face. It was only me, of course. I was appalled to see how wrinkled and used up I looked. As she becomes increasingly trapped by her own mental state, her relationship with her own identity becomes increasingly disembodied, and the reflection in the mirror gradually becomes a stranger.Esthers depression and subsequent breakdown could be interpreted as a gradual abandonment of societal norms. It entails a series of rejections or separations from women who are associated with a stereotypical aspects of womanhood that Esther finds unacceptable. The novels heroine projects components of herself that represent patriarchally defined expectations of women onto other characters her mother, Dodo Conway, Mrs Willard, then through her rejection of these characters she discards the aspects of herself that they personify.Every character can be seen as created to represent aspects of the world which confines Esther with Buddy representing dominant male sexuality and broader forces of society, Dodo representing pressure to have children, Jay Cee being the pressure to have a successful career. The end of the novel sheds all of these forms of entrapment, societal, domestic, sexual and intellectual, virtually entirely. The ultimate chapter chiefly uses imagery of cleanliness and freedom. A pure, blank sheet of sno w is described, but the reader now interprets the snow as representing a fresh start.She compares forgetfulness, that may help her numb and cover her memories, to a kind snow, allowing her freedom from her worries. When Esther readies herself to meet the board of doctors who will certify her release from the hospital, she behaves as if she is preparing for a bridegroom or a date she checks her stocking seams, muttering to herself Something old, something new. . . . But, she goes on, I wasnt getting married. There ought, I thought, to be a ritual for being born twice patched, reshapeed, and approved for the road, I was trying to think of an appropriate one. . . Critics who have been willing to see a reborn Esther have generally through with(p) so without ever questioning the appropriateness of the reference to a retread job. Susan Coyle writes that the tire image seems to be accurate, since the reader does not have a sense of Esther as a brand-new, unblemished tire but of one that has been painstakingly reworked, remade.Linda Wagner, for example, ignores this passage and concentrates on subsequent paragraphs, where the image of an open door and Esthers ability to breathe are, Wagner writes, surely positive images. The ability the breathe serves as a contrast to the sour air under the Bell Jar. There is no interrogative sentence that the novel has a fairly high level of closure with most possibilities eliminated. The reader also knows that she had children, we become aware of this very early on in the construct of the story, so Esther obviously settles down into some sort of domesticity. Plath does not concede that Esther is fully cured, Esther even finally wonders whether she may be trapped by the bell jar again, but the novel concludes on a very optimistic note that Esther is feel from the constraints that she previously felt.