Monday, September 30, 2019
The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is the major piece of the health and safety legislation in Great Britain. It provides the legal framework to promote, stimulate and encourage high standards. The Act, when first introduced, provided an integrated system dealing with workplace health and safety and the protection of the public from work activities. By placing general duties upon employees, employers, the self-employed, manufacturers, designers and importers of work equipment and materials, the protection of the law, rights and responsibilities are available and given to all at work.Regulations made under the Act have the same scope and provide the potential to achieve clear and uniform standards. Examples of such regulations are: The Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1999The Workplace (Health, Safety & Welfare) Regulations 1992 Other health and safety legislation includes: Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 Ã¢â¬â provide a framework for first aid ar rangements in the workplace.The regulations require provision of adequate and appropriate first aid equipment and trained personnel so that first aid can be administered to employees. Electricity Ã¢â¬â Electricity at Work Regulations 1989: Electricity can kill. Each year about 1000 accidents at work involve electric shock or burns are reported to the Health and Safety Executive Manual Handling Ã¢â¬â The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992: Lifting and moving loads manually is the biggest cause of injury, so it is important to make use of any lifting equipment that is provided.In regards to fire, employers must carry out a fire safety risk assessment and keep it up to date. This shares the same approach as health and safety risk assessments and can be carried out either as part of an overall risk assessment or as a separate exercise. Based on the findings of the assessment, employers need to ensure that adequate and appropriate fire safety measures are in place to minim ise the risk of injury or loss of life in the event of a fire.To help prevent fire in the workplace, your risk assessment should identify what could cause a fire to start, i. e. sources of ignition (heat or sparks) and substances that burn, and the people who may be at risk. Once you have identified the risks, you can take appropriate action to control them. For businesses employing five or more people, there must also be: an official record of what the assessment finds (your employer has to put plans in place to deal with the isks) and a formal health and safety policy which include arrangements to protect your health and safety In Northern Ireland we have The Health and Safety at Work (NI) Order 1987 Duties of Employers: An employer has a general duty to, as far as is reasonably practicable, safeguard the health, safety and welfare of employees by ensuring plant and equipment are safe: safe handling, storage, maintenance and transport of articles and substances: provision for empl oyees of information, instruction, training and supervision: a safe working environment and adequate welfare facilities: safe access and exit: and a safe system of work The reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995: (RIDDOR) The Regulations cover employees, self-employed people, members of the public and other people who die or suffer injuries or conditions listed in the regulations as a result of work activities. The arrangements for reporting accidents changed on 1st April 2001. There is now a simplified procedure to report all cases to a single point, the Incident Contact Centre. Employers have a duty to report incidents that lead to staff being off work for seven days or more. On the 1st of April 2013 this will change to 3 days.The Health and Safety Executive NI are responsible for enforcing health and safety at work and aim to influence the development of appropriate codes, standards or guidance, through the provision of operational intelligence (from inspection and investigation) Failure to comply with these requirements can have serious consequences Ã¢â¬â for both organisations and individuals. Sanctions include fines, imprisonment and disqualification. If a health and safety offence is committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other similar officer of the organisation, then that person (as well as the organisation) can be prosecuted under section 37 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Critically Analyze the Following Claim: Ã¢â¬ËClass Is No Longer Relevant in Australia in the Twenty-First CenturyÃ¢â¬â¢
Critically analyze the following claim: Ã¢â¬ËClass is no longer relevant in Australia in the twenty-first century. Ã¢â¬â¢ The relevance of social class in Australia has been disputed as to whether it still exists. There are a lot of arguments and opinions on this issue but class inequality is evidently still in force in twenty first Australia. Contemporary Australian society discriminates the difference of social classes through economic status, education and geographic location.The power struggle in social class is analyzed in theorist Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ where the Bourgeois (ruling class) and the Proletarians (working class) are discussed as to how classes are shaped in societies which can then be applied in twenty first century Australia. Bill MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"ClassÃ¢â¬ discusses the distinction between working and middle class in Australia today compared to a generation ago in accordance to materials, geographic location and employmen t.In Australia, economic status, employment and property ownership refers to what the person earns and owns which are very important factors in determining social classes. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s economic status is determined by their employment and employment in Australia is classified in white and blue collar workers. The white collar workers fall into the ruling class category where they obtain degrees, maintain high wage and use their skills/knowledge from the degree to obtain an office job wearing white dress shirts (which is where the word white collar is derived from).Whereas the blue collar workers fall into the low-middle class category, where the workers are employed as tradesmen or laborers as they have physical work with standard wage which donÃ¢â¬â¢t require high qualifications. These two main tiers of collars are implemented in twenty first Australia which is a fundamental aspect of determining social class as the white collar workers have wealth putting them in power of t he working class which verifies that there is underlying capitalism.In relation to economic status, property ownership is another fundamental aspect of determining a personÃ¢â¬â¢s class in Australia as it defines the personÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. Property can consist of houses, investments, cars, savings accounts, land and any materials with value. Property ownership was MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument in determining social class as, Ã¢â¬Å"The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and hereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society,Ã¢â¬ (Marx 771) which argues that if the person doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have some form of ownership then they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have resources for production which would classify them as a laborer putting them in the working class. Property ownership distinguishes the two classes from each other in Australia as it is seen through the works of the Labor party as it has a large group of pe ople in the working class leaving them to manage capitalism.MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s infamous quote, Ã¢â¬Å"The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles,Ã¢â¬ Ã (Marx 79) makes it clear that class struggle is needed to create the division of classes. Jim Kemeny writes Ã¢â¬Å"Australian capitalism highlights the way in which the Australian ruling class is likely to differ from those of other middle-sized capitalist societies,Ã¢â¬ (Kemeny 103) where the ruling class in Australia is weakly developed in retrospect to the economy.Capitalists have the capital and the workers own their power to labor which only receives one third of their produce as the other two thirds are taken by the capitalists which keeps the classes separated; this is evident in Australia due to technological advancements where the laborers are being replaced by technology putting people out of jobs which explains how the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.This division of labour in Australia can also be analysed by sociologist Max Weber as he thought MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was too simplistic, indeed there were different classes but they were classed according to property, power and prestige (class, power and status). WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s theory also applies in Australia as Australians value mateship and children have the opportunity to enter a different class through their manner of speech, respect in the society, education achievements and social leisure habits which can increase their Ã¢â¬Å"life chancesÃ¢â¬ .Power is doing anything you desire while being able to control other people whether they object or not. In Australia, power is exercised by the government, controlling the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and keeping the classes separated. Prestige/status is how the person is perceived in the community/society. Property will usually lead to prestige and power but property is mostly held by the people working in white collar jobs. Social welfare is provided by the Austr alian Government to the working where Centrelink provides economic assistance for the people out of work.The income support system can help with Austudy Allowance,Ã Carer Allowance,Ã Disability Support, Pension Payment, Orphans Allowance, Newstart Allowance,Ã Maternity Payment,Ã Parenting Payment, Special Benefit Payment andÃ Youth AllowanceÃ which are conducted by a means test (which is usually taken advantage of). The article Ã¢â¬Å"Welcome to bludgetownÃ¢â¬ by Caroline Marcus discusses the different nationalities and demographics of certain suburbs that rely on Centrelink classing them in the lower tier.The geographic location of where people reside has an effect on whether they are categorized into working or ruling class as the suburbs of Greenacre, Punchbowl and Villawood (South-west Sydney) would rather accept Centrelink than find a job. The article reads Ã¢â¬Å"Mr Trad said Muslims suffered from discrimination when it came to applying for jobs. Ã¢â¬ËI wonder if this gentleman has ever experienced discrimination in the workplace himself,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said. Ã¢â¬ËCertainly, people with a Muslim-sounding name are not given the same opportunities Ã¢â¬ ¦ s people with an Anglo-sounding name. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Marcus pars. 16-18) Discrimination can be a possible explanation as to why some of these cultural groups are not employed in this multicultural country which ultimately disadvantages their children as they are automatically categorized in the working class but their geographic location has also disadvantaged them because they are influenced by other people from their culture making them reluctant to even apply for employment which leaves them to stay in the working class.Geographic location can affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s class which is evident in Ã¢â¬Å"ClassÃ¢â¬ by Bill Martin which tours around in three shopping centres in Adelaide. Martin identifies the different stores, cars, clothing, education and occupation in regards to three d ifferent suburbs. The ruling class is evidently Eastside where most of the stores are upmarket, half the cars in the car park are mostly European, clothes are chosen carefully, their children go to private schools and have a dominant occupation of doctors, lawyers, accountants etc.Putting them in the ruling class as opposed to Rosedale where there are discount shops through connected malls, most of the cars in the car park are Holdens, Fords and Toyotas, their clothes are old, their children attend public schools that are trying to defeat drug problems with very few that attend university and have a dominant occupation of public servants, delivery drivers and secretaries.Martin clearly distinguishes between the two suburbs in their two tiers of class. It is evident that the children growing up in Eastside are a lot more likely to become members of the ruling class and the children being raised in Rosedale are more likely to stay in the working class as they are almost destined to ca rry out the same outcome as their parents and very few follow through to higher education to obtain high wage and status.In Australia, the media plays an important role in distinguishing between the classes in Australia as stereotypes are portrayed in the media to make it obvious that class is still an existing factor in society. The Australian nation may want to believe that there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t class discrimination and that everyone is middle class but this claim is evidently false which can be understood in the article Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever happened to the classless society? by Thornton McCamish. The article identifies Australians as an unequal country in reference to class discrimination as McCamish writes about how Australians are portrayed in TV shows such as Summer Heights High where Jamie, a high class Ã¢â¬ËsnobÃ¢â¬â¢ attends a public high school for a semester as opposed to her private girls college and assumes that everyone attending public schools are living in poverty (Ã¢â¬ ËpovvoÃ¢â¬â¢) classing them in the working class.This assumption isnÃ¢â¬â¢t widely made or accepted among Australians as the TV show exaggerates reality but people watching the series may take that into account and might reassess their social status in terms of school placement but the fact of the matter is working class parents can only afford public schools which have higher risks to drug abuse and teen pregnancy. It shows that Australia went from a very egalitarian country to a country with underlying class discrimination issues, that may not necessarily be evident as to where the dividing line is but it is present in twenty-first century Australia.The article reads Ã¢â¬Å"Ignoring class didn't make socio-economic divides go away, just harder to get your head around. Especially once the Howard government took to our class structure with a rhetorical Dymo, replacing labels such as Ã¢â¬ ruling classÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬ working classÃ¢â¬ with new ones such as Ã¢â¬ elitesÃ¢â ¬ and Ã¢â¬ battlersÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a category that seemed to embrace anyone with a swinging vote. Meanwhile, our very rich (not part of the Ã¢â¬ elitesÃ¢â¬ , puzzlingly) got very much richer. Ã¢â¬ (McCamish pars. 6)Masking the names of the ruling or working class doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make class discrimination irrelevant and evidently ignoring the divides doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make class irrelevant either. To conclude, it is obvious that class is still an existing factor in twenty-first century Australia making it relevant especially due to the socio-economic status regarding employment, property ownership and geographic location. Conducted studies by the ABC show that 86% of Australians believe that class is still relevant in Australia.Theories from centuries ago about social classes are still relevant when comparing social discrimination to AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s social classes making it therefore evident that it still exists. WORKS CITED Henslin, James M. Global Stratification, Ã¢â¬Å "Essentials of Sociology: A-Down-To-Earth Approach Eighth ed. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2009. 170-95. Print. Kemeny, J. Capitalism- the Australian way, ArenaÃ (Melbourne) 1978. No. 51, 94-103. Print. Marcus, Caroline. Ã¢â¬Å"Welcome to Bludgetown, Western Sydney. The Daily Telegraph 10 Jun. 2012. Print. Martin, B. Class, in P. Beilharz and T. Hogan (eds. ) Ã¢â¬Å"Sociology: Place, Time and DivisionÃ¢â¬ , South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2006. pp. 402-405. Print. Marx, Karl Ã¢â¬â Engels, Friedrich. The Communist Manifesto. United Kingdom: Penguin Books, 2002. Print. McCamish, Thornton. Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever happened to the classless society. Ã¢â¬ The Age 16 Aug. 2009. Print. Weber, M. The Protestant Ethic and the spirit of Capitalism, Unwin Hyman Limited London- 1985. Print.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Communication is an exchange of information, verbal pr written message and is the process of sending and receiving messageÃ¢â¬ . () With communication there must be a sender and a receiver for it to take place. In this paper I will provide examples how effective and ineffective demonstrative communication can be positive or negative on situations. Also I will explain how demonstrative communication involves listening and responding. Demonstrative communication is nonverbal and unwritten communication thought facial expression or body language. Effective ways for a sender and receiver to communicate in a demonstrative way would be to send the right message. Sender would want to make sure the receiver comprehends and understands the sender. For example Kinesics: Ã¢â¬Å"refers to the many behaviors of the bodyÃ¢â¬ () these would include posture, gestures, and facial expressions. To make a positive gesture one could give the sender two thumbs up letting them know they did a great job. Letting the sender know they understand the message. A negative gestures would be a frown or to raise an eyebrow. This would provide feedback to the sender letting them know you disagree. Effective communication is a two way street for the sender and receiver. Ineffective ways for sender and receiver to communicate would be if the sender was demanding or ordering the receiver for something, and persuading or lecturing them. For example, using words like Ã¢â¬Å"you mustÃ¢â¬ this may make the receiver think you are being demanding and they may resent you. Lecturing the receiver is another negative way to communicate with them. This may cause them to feel like they are wrong. Hepatic is a powerful form of communication. This would include giving the sender a pat on the back letting them knows you understand and everything was great. A native communication result would be a slap in the face. This would lead to many problems. Demonstrative communication between the sender and receiver will be positive if the sender does not overload the receiver with to much information at one time. If the receiver provides active listening or reading, this will allow the receiver to engage in what the sender is trying to get across to them. Demonstrative communication can also be negative if the receiver has a lack of eye contact or crossing of the arms. Things like this tell the sender one may not be interested in their message they are trying to get across. Provide feedback is a part of responding and giving the sender insurances that you are listening and understood what was being said. With demonstrative communication for example, one can respond by providing feedback like, Ã¢â¬Å"What IÃ¢â¬â¢m hearing isÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ This lets the sender know you are listening to the message.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Social Change Impact - Assignment Example These individuals protested in order to attain their rights and to gain acceptability within the society. For example: the civil rights movement started as the society viewed black Americans as inferior and was not accepting them as equal part of the society and similar events were witnessed in LGBT rights and women rights movement. The womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right movement ended up in gaining success because they broke their ultimate goal of attaining their rights into manageable goals and they did not try to bring out a change immediately (Loeb, 2010, p.64). Secondly no one was quite aware about the various advantages that will take place as a result of this change and in order to experience the unforeseen advantages, this change was accepted. The main contributing factor for the sustainability of women right movement was that those involved in this movement did not back down and continued to fight for their rights even when there were huge
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Ancient Rme. When in Rome... Clthing, Sprts And Government - Essay Example The city f Rme has tremendus envirnmental advantages, because f that it made it easier fr Rme t becme an imprtant city. The city f Rme is lcated the first place peple culd cme when they crssed the Tiger river, s it is the natural lcatin f the main nrth-suth rad in Italy. There are imprtant salt flats near the city f Rme, because salt is s imprtant in the ancient wrld. As Rmans expanded their empire they encuntered many different envirnments. The Rman army had t learn different ways f fighting ways f cnquering different areas. During the perid f the Rman Empire (100 B.C. t 500 A.D.) Rmans had envirnmental advantage f cntrlling the Mediterranean Sea. Als anther advantage is getting fds and materials frm lts f different envirnments. Yu culd get tin frm England, wd frm Germany, cttn frm Egypt, and silver frm Spain. Rmans started ff as farmers and shepherds. They never lst the lve f "simple"cuntry life. In the spring farmers prepared field strips using heavy flws pulled by an xen. They planted by seeds by hand. They tls farmers used were irn spades, hes, wden rakes fr cutting grass, they have knifes fr cutting wheat called sickles and scythes. Even thugh they have knifes they invented a wheat cutting machine called Vallus. A vallus is a 2-weeled cart pushed by a hrse r mule. Farmers tk crps frm Asia and the Mediterranean all ver Eurpe. They were als Rman dctrs. They relied n a mixture f cmmn sense, superstitin and what had wrked befre. They didn't understand the causes f disease. Dctrs were usually men. Sme medicines are based n plants. Pppy seed is ne f the main seed medicines. Pppy seed juice is given t crying babies because it helped them t sleep. The mdern pain-killing drug mrphine is made frm pppy seed. Clthing Ancient Rman wmen wre lse tunics. The main garment is an ankle length stla tied at the waist belw their breast. A brch at the shulder fastened the stla. ver it, a rectangle clth usually drpped ver ne shulder, arund back. They usually wre sandals. At hme they wre elegant slippers. Wmen wh culd nt affrd shes went bareft. The material that rman wmen used was linen. Wealthy wmen wre silk imprted frm India r China. Pr wmen were fashined with curse brwn and grey clth. In the cld weather wmen wre crapes, shawls and scarfs. Als they wre wlen scks, stckings, and prbably mittens. British wmen wre a Gallic cat which is a wide lse tunic with sleeves. Sprts In the city Rme there is a place called campus. It was an ld drill grund fr sldiers. It was a large sectin f plain near the Tiber River. vertime campus became Rme's track and field playgrund. Even famus peple such as Caesar and Augustus exercised in campus. Peple might jump in the Tiber River t have a swim r wander ff and relax by taking a bath. Men practice riding, fencing, wrestling, thrwing, swimming, hunting and fishing. At hme men play ball befre they have dinner. A ppular ball game is t thrw the ball as high as pssible and catch it befre it hit the grund. Wmen didn't jin these games. Rmans played many ball games, but nt all f them had specific names. Sme f them were difficult. nly a few games that culd be frmulated with a ball and a circle. Defense And War Rman armr is usually made ut f irn r steel and had wden r bne hand grips. The leginnaire was usually armed with a dagger r swrd. The leginnaire's favrite was a shrt-bladed duble-edged stabbing weapn. Ft sldiers had thrwing spears, shrt bws r javelins. There are tw main artillery machines t thrw missiles. Catapult and, a cmmn siege weapn called ballista. It was military equipment that culd hurl a large bulder up t 600 ft. Gvernment The
LLB - CONTRACT LAW - Essay Example Georgian era ended in 1830 and this means Peter meant that candlesticks came to the family during Victorian era and perhaps John should have found out details about their previous owner. Still there is no doubt that he was totally misled as he trusted Peter. This contract could be set aside because it is a misrepresentation1 from one side and a mistake on the other. Misrepresentation was done in clear words, with a special knowledge2, over dinner at Peter's residence by Peter, upon which the entire Contract stood. John has to prove that it was not a matter of opinion regarding the nature and originality of the candlesticks, but was an intentionally made statement, because if it was a matter of opinion, misrepresentation does not come into picture3. John can prove it easily because Peter did not refuse the 7000, which is exorbitant for a piece as recent as Victorian. Peter also has a possibility of showing that he genuinely believed that the piece was Georgian; but such possibility is remote. John's mistake could be argued as 'being led to it' and not an incorrect understanding and this can be a ground to invalidate the agreement.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Potatoes - Essay Example Its Latin name is Solanum tuberosum L. and is a perennial plant i.e. present at all seasons of the year. (Rhodes, 2009). In the genus Solanum, Petota comprises of around 190 wild tuber-bearing species, and are extensively spread in the Americas, from the South Western USA to Southern Chile and Argentina and from sea level to the highlands of the Andes Mountains (Visser et al., 2009). A universally accepted taxonomy does not exist for cultivated potatoes. The interested part of the potato crop plant is a tuber, the enlarged end of a stolon, or underground stem. Externally tuber appears as tan to purple color while; its flesh is normally white or light yellow, except for some purple Andrean potatoes. The tuber buds off externally that can sprout into new crops. These buds or eyes function like a fruit seeds which give rise to new plants (Rhodes, 2009). Cross breeding techniques between common potato varieties and wild potato varieties are used to produce crop plants with desirable traits such as broad spectrum resistances to pests and diseases, tolerances to frost and drought, high yielding and highly nutritious crops in adverse biotic and abiotic stimuli, high quality storage characteristics, easy processing etc (Visser et al., 2009). In addition to this, developed countries are also emphasizing on organically prepared and processed potato. The production of diverse and abundant food to sustain the demand of increasing population is the need of the day. The supply of abundant, cheapest, diverse and safest food becomes an immense challenge in developing world. In this regard, root and tuber crops can contribute significantly. The annual growth rates of potato production are increasing by 4.5 million tons per year (Visser et al., 2009). It tops the list in non-grain food commodity, while secures third position as an important food crop after wheat and rice (Visser et al., 2009). It has been reported that in 2007, 325 million
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Project Management - Essay Example s paper outlines the activities that can be involved when building a new house. This initiative has been underscored after realizing that it is wise to build a personal house than rely on rented accommodation. There are various factors such as financial issues that are involved in this work. It is also important for the individual involved to procure the place to build a house first before undertaking any construction work. The paper is divided into different categories that outline the different phases that can be involved in building a house. Business case: Financial and other considerations The business case involves building a house and the set budget for completing this project is ?25Ã 000. However, a supplementary budget of ?5Ã 000 has been set aside for this particular project. In order to complete this project there are different considerations that ought to be taken into account. There is need to procure raw materials that can be used in carrying out this project. There is also need to hire contractors who can execute this particular task. Planning assumptions and external constraints As is often the case when a project needs to be completed, proactive steps such as research, planning, communication, and review are often seen as basic tenets of project success (Josler & Burger, 2005). Basically, the term project is used to describe a set of activities that are linked and they are directed towards the attainment of a certain goal (Hellriegel 2001). A project can also be described as a onetime activity with a definite start and finish. As such, through utilization of project management methodology, a project can be completed within the expected time frame, on budget as well meeting the expected standards that satisfy all the stakeholders who may be involved. In this case, the baseline of the project is to carry out a feasibility study to establish if the project can be manageable. This is followed by outlining the cost and benefit analysis of the pro ject where the objectives are also set. When planning a project, the steps needed to obtain the goals of a project need to be outlined since this gives the team members direction to follow. A risk assessment ought to be carried out. In this case where a project involving the construction of a house is being undertaken, there are external constraints that can be encountered. As discussed in detail below, it can be noted that some of the external constraints may include the unprecedented changes in the price of raw materials used for building the house. Fluctuating labour costs can also affect the project hence the need to put contingency plans in place in order to deal with such a scenario. Options considered There are various external constraints that are likely to be encountered when carrying out a project. However, certain measures ought to be implemented in such a scenario. The last part of the paper outlines some of the contingent measures that can be implemented in case of chal lenges that can derail the progress being encountered. Benefits of building own house There are many
Monday, September 23, 2019
Criminal procedure - Essay Example As society progresses in almost every environmental aspect (social, economic, politics etc.), what the people need is order and including their significant concerns on their individual rights so as to preserve their lives, freedom, properties and so on. Thus, it is important to understand which among the due process and crime control model gives them significant advantages and benefits in addressing their concerns. In this paper, the proponent tries to compare and contrast the role of due process and crime control models on shaping criminal procedure policy. Thus, the analysis includes a review and assessment of the Amendments of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights to the states and their potential impacts on the criminal justice system as applied to due process and crime control models. Crime control model Crime control model is associated with efficient criminal justice system. ... Due process model The due process model is concerned with the justice and on the process how it is achieved. In other words, in this model there is equal treatment on giving protection of the innocent and employing punishment of the guilty (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2011, p.81). In either way, there is fair treatment on these two cases as the ultimate goal is to seek justice under the required process in the entire justice system. Thus, in other way of saying this, under the due process model, the rights of each individual, either culprit or innocent victim, either of them has to undergo a fair trial. This is a process of giving equal opportunity for each individual to protect their rights. Analysis Crime control and due process models are integral parts of the US criminal procedure. However, in practice and principle these two may differ at some point, as the former would want to emphasize efficiency and finality of the outcome rather than emphasizing appropriate procedures wit hin the justice system. The main argument that may possibly exist in comparison of these criminal procedures involves the consideration of what is meant to achieve Ã¢â¬Å"justiceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"efficiencyÃ¢â¬ . Based on the above definitions, it turns out that the due process model absolutely focuses on achieving justice while crime control model may be too narrowly focused on solving the crime that at some point may disregard whether there was a fair procedure implemented as to the case of the former. For instance, in the fourth, fifth and sixth amendments of the US Constitution, each person has the right to protect or secure their persons, houses, papers and so on from unreasonable searches and seizures; secure to answer for a capital or infamous crime
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Message to Garcia Essay In the short writing, Message to Garcia, the author Elbert Hubbard writes of a man named Rowen, who is tasked with delivering a letter to the leader of the Cuban resistance forces, General Garcia. But the story is not about his trials, or his mishaps. Its not about his journey nor his thoughts about the situation at all. The story actually mentions Rowan only a few times throughout. The author instead focuses on the qualities of Rowan, not on what he says, but, rather on what he didnt. The narrator of the story, who is never actually named but whom can be assumed to be in close conjunction with those who were tasked with reaching Garcia, speaking of Rowans undeniable loyalty to the cause. The situation was seemingly impossible. Trying to reach Garcia who was actively trying to stay hid to deliver a message asking for his cooperation. With no questions asked Rowan sats out on his three week journey to deliver the message. The connection between Rowans silence on the details of the mission, and his loyalty to the task and the ones giving it to him are explained further in the story. In fact later on, it becomes less of a story and more of a guidance manual to the readers. It explains that how many times nowadays, or perhaps most times, success is gained through back ended means. People in general sense do not possess the mindset to focus on a task, nor have the willingness to gain that mindset. When told to accomplish a task, they wither go do it halfheartedly is at all, or simply shift it to the side, or the gutter as the author put it. The main connection that the author made was that Rowan did not ask where General Garcia was. Not because he already knew, but that he knew enough about the situation that he had already made the determination that he was tasked with the mission because nobody else knew either. To put it simple, it did not matter whether he asked or not. His success of the mission relied purely on his skills and accomplishing the task. Asking questions like whoÃ and how ere of little consequence. He had to do it and he would do it. As I said before, the author was not concerned with the journey, but his willingness and loyalty to mission accomplishment to begin the impossible journey at all. The author also goes into details about another man, to describe the polar opposite of Rowan. He describes the man as impervious to reason, unable to take orders, nor give them. Basically describing a large portion of todays society. The people with a society of people such as that is that progress is halted, not because the means arent there, but that there is not initiative to find the means and put them into effect to get things done. To a logical thinking person, the conclusion is this, that Rowans qualities of dedication to the mission, and his comrades that would more the likely be benefited by his actions, even if he could not immediately see it, are qualities that we should all strive to possess. To better ourselves and those around us is a mission in itself, one that we should all be loyal too, not just for us, but for everyone, For is everyone shared this sentiment, perhaps the need to send a letter to General Garcia would not have existed at all. The need for us to observe situations, or missions, if you will, from a third person point of view, rather than looking just at how they will benefit us, or take us out of our comfort zones, becomes more necessary as we receive more responsibility to get the mission accomplished.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The History Of Pericles History Essay After winning Persian War of the Greece city-states, Athens became the leader of Greece because of its critical role in the war and its outstanding navy. In 477 B.C., the Greece city-states created the alliance which was called the Delian League. Athens controlled the alliance from the start; it, therefore, collected the tribute, commanded the leagues fleets and dictated policy. From Delos to the Acropolis in Athens, in 454 B.C., Athens moved the league treasury. Athens established an empire through the benefit from controlling the Delian. Athenians enjoyed the great political freedom ever, and Greek culture bloomed. The Athenians leader also undertook the beautify-Athens program because Athens was destroyed by Persians in 480 B.C. Athenians strengthened the defensive walls that connected Athens to the busy port of Piraeus. The building program employed thousands of workers. Athens became the center of Greek culture when many talent artists, philosophers, and poets converged on there. The period following the Persians war has been known as the Golden Age of Athens. Who was the leader of Athens during the Golden Age of Athens? He was the great leader who we have known as Pericles. He ruled Athens from 461 B.C. to 429 B.C. In this paper, we will outline you clearly about Pericles family background, military career, foreign policy and his ideas on democracy. Family background and early life Pericles, the son of Xanthippus and Agariste, was born in Athens in the state of Attica in 494 B.C. into a very distinguished Athenian family. His father, Xanthippusa military leader in the Persian Wars in 479 B.C.attaining hero status as a result, victorious at the battle at Mycale, was the son of one Ariphron and the father of another. Ariphron II was a candidate for ostracism. Xanthippus himself was ostracized in spring 484. Pericles mother, Agariste, was a member of the Alcmaeonid family, famous for its long involvement in Athens political history, which was accused of treachery at the Battle of Marathon. The Pericles family is an old lineage that has migrated all across the world over time, and as the name Pericles has migrated, it has changed making its history a challenge to piece together. This Pericles history and genealogy page contains the accumulated history of the Pericles family name made up of user-contributed content from users like you. Pericles family history has a complex evolution of which Pericles family members have accumulated the particulars over the years. During his middle life, many Sophist philosophers came into Athens, and he seemed to have gained full benefit of the society of Zeno and mainly Anaxagoras, from whom he was said to have learned impassivity in the face of trouble and insult and incredulity about unproven godly phenomena. In 472 B.C. Pericles studied music under Damon and mathematics under Zeno of Elea, which was the best education available. Military career Pericles was a general of Athens during the citys Golden Age known specifically as the time between the Persain and Peloponnesian war. Pericles achieved his military career in many wars, such as battle in Sicyon and Acarnania (454 BC), Second Sacred War (448 BC), expulsion of barbarians from Gallipoli (447 BC), Samain War (440 BC), siege of Byzantium (438 BC), and Peloponnesian War (431-429 BC). Meanwhile, many ancient historians had blamed on Pericles and allies were the causes of Peloponnesian war. Peloponnesian war was a war between Athens and Sparta, the leading city-states of ancient Greece, along with their allies, which included nearly every other Greek city-state. Its principal cause was a fear of Athenian imperialism. The Athenian alliance reliance relied on its strong navy, the Spartan alliance on its strong army. The war fell into two periods, which were separated by a six-year truce. In the meantime, Pericles was a commander of Athenians to fight the war breaking out in 431. In the first 10 years, Archidamus led the Spartans to defeat. Plagur strike Athens in 429 and killed Pericles and much of the army. Pericles technically centered his military policy on Themistocless principle that the majority of Athenians depended on its superior naval power and supposed that the Peloponnesians were near invincible on land. He also began a self-protective,the so-called grand strategy whose goal was the collapse of the enemy and the preservation of the status quo. The two basic principles of the Periclean Grand Strategy were the rejection of appeasement (in agreement with which he advised the Athernians not to withdraw the Megarian Decree) and the prevention of overextension. Foreign policy Notably, after he gained political salience in the 450 B.C. at Athens, Pericles had the idea of expanding and strengthening his empire with not only the neighboring but also the other city-states, which were far from Athens. He, therefore, devoted his attention on the foreign policy as his vital political mechanism, which allowed him to partner with many states even his enemy. At the level of a single city-state, his foreign policy consisted of two main goals. They are, first, continuing military action against the Persian presence in Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean, and second, greater attention to Athenian relations and disputes with other Greek states. To put the matter in another fashion, this foreign policy brought good and bad effect; as a result, the second de facto policy reflected the growing hostility between Athens and Sparta. Throughout the foreign policy, Athens also made the alliances with the Argos and Thessayly, which were Spartas enemies. He also, finally, reache d the truce with the Sparta after battling with either side won the war. Thus, Pericles foreign policy did help to unite not even other states but even the enemy to be friend. Democracy The Persians of Aeschylus was introduced by Pericles at the greater Dionysia as hierurgy, showing that he was rich in Athens in 472 B.C. Pericles choice of the play, which demonstrated a nostalgic picture of Themistocles well-known victory at Salamis, had been argued by Cimon Hornblower. Pericles supported Themistocles to fight against his adversary, Cimon. Plutarch said, democratically, almost forty years, Pericles was the first notable leader among the people in Athens. It meant Pericles had taken a position of leadership by the early 460s B.C. During the years, Pericles tried to conserve his private life and to show himself as a model for his people. For instance, he would often stop holding or joining party and tried to be thrifty. At Areopagus, it consisted of the Athenian aristocracy, which had once had the most powerful leader in the state; the leadership of the Democratic Party decided it was time to take goal in around 462- 461B.C. Ephialeswho was the chief of the party and mentor of Periclessuggested the reduction of the Areopagus power. As a result, the Athenian Assembly, Ecclesia, adopted Ephialtes suggestion with no strong opposition. Without further delay, a new era of radical democracy was started immediately by this reform. In order to coax the public, Pericles seemed to follow a populist policy and the Democratic Party steadily became dominant in Athenian Politics. Apparently, Pericles accomplished the political removal of troublesome adversary by the reason that Cimon crossed up his city by being friendly with Sparta. Pericles kept advocating and promoting a populist social policy after Cimons collapse. With the state covering the cost of their entrance fees, he firstly suggested a law that allowed the indigence to enjoy theatrical plays without paying. With other laws, he decreased the property needs for people in high position in 458- 457 B.C and gave liberal wages on all citizens who served as jurymen in the Heliaia, the supreme court of Athens, just after 454 B.C. But, a law of 451 B.C limited Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian ancestry on both sides was his most disputed action. Such actions made Pericles critics regarded him to be responsible for the progressive deterioration of the Athenian democracy. Some historians have argued that Pericles looked for the enlargement and stabilization of all democratic institutions. Hence, he l egislated law granting the indigence to access to the political system and the public offices from which they had formally been barred because of limited means or low-born. On the other hand, Cimon was sure that democracy had reached its peak, and stalemate of populism had been led by Pericles reforms, so he surly believed that no further free space for democratic evolution existed. Like Cimon, the other historical experts believed that because of Pericles reform, Athens sank into the abyss of political turmoil and demagogy after his dead. Pericles is called a populist, a demagogue and a hawk by some contemporary scholars, while others adore his charming leadership. Plutarch said that Pericles was not a man whom he knew before; he was biddable to the people and ready to give in to the desires of the multitude as a steersman to the breezes. It is told that when Spartas king, Archidamus, asked his political adversary Thucydides, who was the better fighter between two of them, Thucydides answered without any dither that Pericles was better because even when he was beaten, he tried to persuade the spectators that he had won. Thucydides, an admirer of Pericles, said that Athens was nominal democracy but, in fact, governed by its first citizen. The historians have explained what he perceived as Pericles charisma to lead, convince and, sometimes, to manipulate through this comment. Even though, Thucydides pointed out the fining of Pericles, he did not refer to the condemnation against Pericles but focused on Pericles honesty. In one of his dialogues, on the other hand, Plato denied the praise of Pericles and said that Pericles made the Athenians lazy, talkative and greedy, by beginning the system of public fees. Plutarch pointed out other criticisms of Pericles leadership that many others say that he first led on the peoples into allotments of public lands, festival-grants, and distributions of fees for public services; due to these reasons, they fell into bad habits and became sumptuous under the effect of his public action instead of thrifty and self-contained. Thucydides argued that the people did not carry away Pericles, but he guided the people. His decision has been questioned; some 20th-century critics, such as Malcolm F. McGregor proposed that he might have been a charming public face acting to be supported on the suggestions of advisors, or the people themselves. According to the King, by increasing the power of the people, the Athenians left themselves with no authoritative leader. During the Peloponnesian War, Pericles depended on his popular to govern was obvious. In the literary works of his Golden Age, we can find Pericles most visible legacy, most of which survive to this day. First, The Acropolis, though it is in ruins, still stands and is a symbol of modem Athens. In politics, Athenian imperialism is the remarkable legacy of Pericles. It denies the true democracy and freedom to the people at all but the ruling state. Finally, the freedom of expression is regarded as the lasting legacy deriving from this period. Conclusion Pericles, the greatest statesman of ancient Greece, was born 494 B.C in the wealthy family. His father was that Xanthippus who won the victory over the Persians at Mycale, 479 B.C.; and his mother, Agariste, the niece of the great Athenian reformer, Cleisthenes. He received an extravagant education; his teacher whom he most reverenced was the quiet and gentle philosopher, Anaxagoras. Pericles was noticeable all through his career for the singular dignity of his manners, the Olympian grandeur of his articulacy, his majestic intelligence in Platos phrase, his wisdom, integrity, and deep Athenian patriotism. The abilities of Pericles were supreme that he quickly rose to the highest power in the state as the leader of the dominant democracy. His successful expeditions to the Thracian Chersonese, and to Sinope on the Black Sea, together with his colonies planted at Naxos, Andros, Oreus in Euboea, Brea in Macedonia, and AEgina, as well as Thurii in Italy, and Amphipolis on the Strymon, did much to spread and confirm the naval power of Athens, and afford a means of subsistence for his poorer citizens. But his greatest project was to create, in concert with the other Hellenic states, a grand Hellenic confederation in order to put an end to the mutually destructive wars of kindred peoples, and to make Greece one enormous nation, fit to front the outlying world. After Cimon was dead and Thucydides was disliked, and came into the end of his life, Pericles reigned the undisputed master of the public policy of Athens. During the rest of his career there was, says the historian Thucydides, in name a democracy, but in reality a government in the hands of the first man. Soon after the Samian war broke out, in which Pericles gained high renown as a naval commander. The Samians, after a stubborn struggle, were beaten, and a peace was established. Since the time of the Persian invasion, he had been the leader of the confederacy formed to fight the attacks of the powerful enemy, and the guardian of the confederate treasury kept in the isle of Delos. Pericles caused the treasury to be removed to Athens, and commuting the commissions of the allies for money, enormously increased the contributions to the patriotic fund, Athens herself undertaking to protect the confederacy. He decorated and enriched Athens with the spoils of the allied states. Pericles did many things to make his native city the most magnificent in the ancient world. Under his patronage, Greek architecture and sculpture reached perfection. He remained Athens the Parthenon, the Erechtheum, left unfinished at his death, the Propylaea, the Odeum, and numerous other public and holy edifices; he also liberally stimulated music and the drama; and during his life, industry and commerce was in so well-off a condition that prosperity was universal in Attica. In 431, the long foreseen and inevitable Peloponnesian war broke out between Athens and Sparta. The plague damaged the city in 430, and in the autumn of the following year, Pericles died after a prolonged fever. As a greatest statesman, Pericles was a lofty-minded statesman, motivated by noble objectives, and his heart was full of a honorable love for the city and his citizens. When he lay dying and speciously insensible, his friends around his bed were passing in review the great accomplishments of his life, and the nine cups which he had founded at different times for so many triumphs. The dying patriot silently interrupted with the typical sentence: What you praise in my life belongs partly to good fortune, and is, at best, common to me with many generals. But that of which I am proudest, you have left unnoticedno Athenian has ever put on mourning through any act of mine.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Factors for Political Participation The term political participation has a very broad meaning. It is not only related to Right to Vote but simultaneously relates to participation in: decision making process, political activism, political consciousness. Women in socialist democratic countries have higher proportion of representation in their federal parliament than women in Canada because In Canada there is less population as compare to socialist democratic countries. Moreover, females are least interested in parliament. In democratic Female politicians are more likely to concentrate on problems that matter more to women such as daycare, gender equality, reproductive rights, elderly care and childrens welfare.Women turnout during Indias 2014 parliamentary general elections was 65.63%, compared to 67.09% turnout for men. India ranks 20th from the bottom in terms of representation of women in Parliament. Not only has these women politicians taken an interest in various policy issues. But it also had been shown that they a lso govern differently. In Sweden 45 per cent seats are occupied by women in parliament. So far as the administration is concerned, there are only 592 women IAS officers out of 4,671 officers(Puja mondal). The demand for special concessions and privileges along with the reservation of posts and other civic institutions are a few steps towards women empowerment in India Assemblies and parliament. Lyn Kathleen shows that American female politician have very different leadership styles from men. In her study Not only do women politicians take an interest in different policy issues, but it has also been shown that they also govern differently. Since the modern notion of human rights originated in a western women in Islamic countries in particular, find themselves in a quandary when they initiate, or participate in, a discussion on human rights whether in the west or in Muslim societies. Indian women have a distinction to become UNO Secretary (Vijay laxmi Pandit), Prime Minister (Indira Gandhi), Chief Minister (Sucheta Kriplani, Jayalalitha, Uma Bharati, Mayawati and Vasundhara Raje) and even President (Pratibha Patil). Furthermore, the limited empowerment that we have seen has been nurtured within the socio-economic-political empowerment process of people, including women, through the Panchayat system (Bagchi 2002) Structural: Structural barriers include the level of socio-economic development in a society and the percentage of women in professional and managerial activities. There is a direct link between the social and economic status of women in society and their participation in political institutions and elected bodies. Socio-economic obstacles include poverty and unemployment, lack of adequate financial resources, illiteracy and limited access to education, choice of professions and the dual burden of family and a full-time job. Women take on a disproportionate share of household tasks which makes a political career almost impossible. Moreover, household tasks, taking care of the children and elderly are not always considered as actual work. Institutional structures: Because of their multi-level hierarchy and complex decision-making help to preserve barriers in such a way that proposals regarding any aspects of gender equality often do not reach the top decision-making level. In Slovakia, the electoral system is based on proportional representation on candidates lists, which means that women have (theoretically) a better chance to be elected. The position of women on the candidates lists is then crucial for their eligibility: the higher a woman is seeded on the list, the bigger chance she has to be elected. In the 2002 elections, the share of female candidates seeded in the top half of candidates lists was 20.9% and the share in the top quarter was 17.9 %.( Alexandra 2002). Many women and men do not think that introducing quotas is a good idea. Men argue that it would be humiliating for women to introduce a quota system because our clever women can succeed themselves, and it would be against the basic human rights and equality of all. Women are skeptical mainly because of the experience with quotas from the socialist past, and because they believe that the society is not yet prepared to accept quotas. Education: Education is the best way to understand the inequality. With the help of education they have better job opportunity and serve better their community. Because women have less access to education than men, their professional advancement and chance to enter institutions involved in corporate politics at an operative level are reduced. Some societies and parents see their role in giving a full quality education to women as a privilege that can be withdrawn. The impact of illiteracy on the exercising of ones political rights has been the main method to reduce it. Women do not enter nontraditional occupations; instead women enter nurturing or tertiary occupations which inhibit political life and the growth of self confidence. There is a mindset on the part of many men and women that a role in politics is unsuitable for a woman. Poverty: Poverty is also one of the major hindrances for women to be involved in politics, namely, the disproportionate effect of poverty on women. Because of womens care giving responsibilities they often work part-time, which has a lifelong effect on womens income and women who do work full-time still earn less than men Whereas men who enter into politics tend to come from law and business and earning better. In addition, many women are discouraged by a lack of resources to finance their electoral campaign or undertake serious initiatives. Often poverty also prevents women from taking the time for political involvement. Christy Clark BC MLA(2001) asked by several Journalists to explain how she could do her job properly as provincial minister of education while simultaneously raising a new born child Type of democracy is also important. References: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com https://www.equalvoice.ca Bashevkin, Sylvia (2009), Introduction, in Bashevkin, Sylvia, Women, Power, Politics: The Hidden Story of Canadas Unfinished Democracy, Oxford University Press, p. 15, Bagchi, A.K.(2000), sangskriti, samaj,o Arthanity (in Bengali: culture, society, and economics), Calcutta. United Nations Childrens Fund, The State of the Worlds Children 2004: Girls education and development, UNICEF, New York, 2003.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Lolita: An Analysis of Obsession Through the Decades "Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins. My sin, my soul. Lo-lee-ta: the tip of the tongue taking a trip of three steps down the palate to tap, at three, on the teeth. Lo. Lee. Ta." In 1958, Vladimir Nabokov created two of the most unrelenting characters in the history of literature: Humbert Humbert and Lolita Haze. His narrator's voice and main character, Humbert Humbert, explains the complex story of a man and his obsession. To set this book off from other books about obsession, Nabokov gives Humbert possibly the most socially unacceptable obsession of all: pedophilia. This obsession leads Humbert on a cross country journey to find his precious Lolita upon the discovery that she has run away and decided to marry. It is this Lolita that causes much of the controversy in the book. Is she an innocent child who is caught up by a wave of "Humbertism" that seems to control her life? Or is she simply an adult in a child's body who plays off of Humbert's obsession to gain things for herself? The answer is one that involves not only an analysis of the text, but also an analysis of the context in which the text is read. It is this analysis of context that will supp ly a new appreciation for not only the basic plot of Lolita, but also the underlying satire that riddles the book. As with all literature, many of the ideas and plot twists that supply the excitement to this particular book are seen under a guise of the particular generation that reads it. Not only do these ideas no longer play an important part to the interpretation as it is transferred from generation to generation, but many times the way in which a book is written can affect the reader. The most prominent case of this happening is in the works of Shakespeare. The ideas and plots he present in his books are most often lost in our contemporary society as we find not only his word usage, but also his themes to be archaic, and unbarring on modern life. Such is the case of Nabokov's Lolita. There is one slight difference, however, between the writing of Shakespeare, and the writing of Nabokov (and in particular Lolita).
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Witch of Blackbird Pond Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Kit Tyler, the main character of Elizabeth George Spear's book, The Witch of Blackbird Pond, must leave her carefree life in tropical Barbados, and go and live in Connecticut. She learns that playing is what is to life, but hard work. She learns that if people do not know you, that they pre judge you. She also learns that if you don't live up to the Puritan life style, that they will look down at you. Kit must learn to cope, and learn from all these changes in her life. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã First of all her grandfather dies, which leaves her as an orphan. She byes a ticket to Connecticut, where the last of her relatives live. When she arrives she is hit with a new way of life. In Barbados, slaves did the work, so Kit never worked before. She comes dressed in a Silk dress, which at that time was unacceptable in Connecticut. When she arrives at her relative's house, she is amazed how small in was compared to the house she lived in on Barbados. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Secondly, she goes to church. In Barbados her grandfather never stressed church as being important, so this was a new experience. When they started to sit down, the family separated into two groups, the men would go to the left, while the women sat to the right of the aisles. Then the Priest would talk about that Sunday's lesson. Then they went home, and had Sunday's dinner. Then her uncle would read out of the Bible. Then they would go to bed. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Thirdly, the people never like people that never followed the rules. One day when Kit was working in the field, see was told a story of an old Quaker woman that lived by Blackbird Pond. A Quaker was people that didn't come to Sunday services like the Puritans stated, and wouldn't follow the Puritans' way of life. They said that this old Quaker was a witch, and had cast spells on the city. Kit didn't believe the stories, and one time after she finished her work, went to visit the old woman. When see arrived, she saw a poor old women in a tiny little house, and then Kit started to help her. When the children of the town got sick, the town people went to get to old women, and make her stand trial for supposedly casting a spell.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Nowadays, money is important to us in our life. Without money, many thing will not success and we will get many problem and tough in our life. Every people think that money is important for them, all of us work hard to hope can get more and more money. The money is wont enough in our daily life. We should save the money that we have but not use all of it. If we have sick, we should need money to but medicine or see doctor. If we do not have money, we will can't get a treatment and we will get die or else.In this essay, this essay will discuss about the important of saving money. First and foremost, saving money can help us to get money when we need money urgently. For example, when our family need money to have some medical treatment, we can take out our money to help them for their medical treatment. So, we do not need to borrow money from anywhere from people, we can use the money that we save to solve the problem. In addition, we should save money for our future. When we need to m arry, we should need a lot money.If we do not have money, no girl will like to marry us. So, we should need to save money. After we marry, we will need to buy car and house. If we have save money, we would have money to buy it. So, we will not be troublesome when we need to buy. After we marry, we would have our children. We will need many money for our children. We need money for the milk, fees and many more. When they go study, we will need to pay for their fees, tuition and their books. So, saving money is important for our future. Furthermore, we save money can use to go for travel.After we had hardworking earn money and busy for the life everyday, we should have to relax ourselves such as travel. If we have save money every month, we will have money to go travel. We can bring our family to go for travel and make the relationship to be closer. So, we can know more about our family and can live happily. We can relax ourselves after our hard work. So, if we save money, we can go t ravel and relax ourselves. There is another benefit of saving money. Besides, saving money can let us do not use our parents' money.We are adult already, So, we must save money and do not take money from parents anymore. Although we are studying now, we can try not to take money from them. Not only like that, we can save some money as we can to buy some present for our parents when their birthday. They will feel very happy if they get present from us. So, saving money can help us to let them happy. In conclusion, saving money bring many benefit to us. So, we should save money to let us have moeny to use when we need. If everybody know to save money, then we can decrease the beggar too.
Monday, September 16, 2019
In Business to Consumer marketing, the consumers purchase the product because they derive pleasure out of it or because they need it in their everyday consumptions and not because they very much in need of it for improvement and to gain profit. Whereas in Business to Business marketing, business purchaser buys a product because they need it for them to become competitive, cost-effective and triumphant in the business line they chose (Smith, 2002). Another difference would be Business to Consumer marketing involves only Ã¢â¬Å"small transactionsÃ¢â¬ since they are only concerned with the individual transactions.While Business to Business marketing conducts Ã¢â¬Å"large transactionsÃ¢â¬ since their market includes another business entity or company (Oliva, 2007). The mode of selling of Business to Consumer marketing is only linear. Meaning, there is a direct and simple way of conducting a transaction. Whereas in the Business to Business marketing the purchasing process of a certa in company for a certain product would have to take series of processes before ordering the chosen product (Oliva, 2007).Another exceptional difference of the two would be, in Business to Consumer marketing, the customer of the company has a limited perception on the product that the company is providing. While in the Business to Business marketing, since the company is dealing with the intellectual persons, they have the capacity to fully understand the value of the product. Because of this, low profile advertisement or marketing communication will not take any effect on your target business customer (Smith, 2002).Under the Business to Business marketing, business entities are Ã¢â¬Å"information seekersÃ¢â¬ and always on search for new ideas that would improve their firm or company, have higher investment return or any information that would bring them to the top of their career. Whereas, individual consumers in Business to Consumer marketing are always contented with what is al ready available in the market. they lack initiatives to look for new ideas since they are just purchasing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product/s for pleasure and not for improvement (Smith, 2002).Lastly, in B2B marketing, you have to be direct with your customer regarding your product. You cannot make some Ã¢â¬ËfloweryÃ¢â¬â¢ features just to have their Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ on your product. What you need is to be precise, direct to the point and state all the reasons why your customer should buy your product. On the other hand, in B2C marketing, the firm can add Ã¢â¬ËcolorsÃ¢â¬â¢ to their presentation to attract the customers. The more creative you present it, the higher is the probability that your good will be purchased (Smith, 2002).The above said differences has to be consider by a Business to Business marketing type of firm fro them to easily gain the market share of their target customers or consumers. Like for instance, you are selling computer units to a telephone company. In t he presentation that you are going to do, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to hire commercial actors or actresses to present the features of your product. What you should do is to prepare a demonstration or presentation that will educate the telephone company regarding what will be the help of your computer to further improve their services.Sometimes you have to be technical with the term since that is the easiest way for the intellectuals to fully understand what you are saying. Role of Personal Selling in Business to Business Marketing Personal selling is the communication of the sales person with their possible customer done verbally for the purpose of closing the deal with the customer. The main focus of personal selling is to develop a good relationship with the potential buyers most especially the Ã¢â¬Å"willÃ¢â¬ to close the deal (tutor2u. com, 2007).One of the roles of sales person under the Business to Business marketing is the prospecting or trying to find new customers or consume rs. Since we are considering here a Business to Business type of marketing, it is important for the sales person to clearly identify the right type of customers for their product. The sales person should focus on business type customers and not individual customers. Therefore sales person should be direct when presenting the goods to the company managers or any other important person from the prospect company.What the sales person needs is to be precise, direct to the point and state all the reasons why the company should buy the product should buy your product. Another role of sales person is having communication with the current and probable customers regarding their product. Company managers are information seekers and thus, sales person should communicate from time to time to their potential and current customers regarding the latest information on the products of the sales person.For example, colorful or creative ads of, let say, your software company did not attract the busine ss entities to buy your products until you send them e-mails and journals that explains the features of your products in technical terms. Sales person should know the right means of communicating based from the type of their customers. An additional role of a sales person is the selling of the products, which includes getting in touch with their customer as well as responding to the questions and aiming to close the deal with the customer. For instance the sales person is selling computer units to a telephone company.What you should do is to prepare a demonstration or presentation that will educate the telephone company regarding what will be the help of your computer to further improve their services. Sometimes you have to be technical with the term since that is the easiest way for the intellectuals to fully understand what you are saying. Servicing is the third role of the sales person. Based from this role, the sales person should provide support and service to the customer from the delivery up to the post sales of the product. Providing products to a business customer is not enough.Often time, the sales person is being required to entertain additional questions upon delivery of their goods. Company officials are known for their being specific with the details. The sales person should be able to answer all the questions that might rise by any officials of their business customer. Sales person are also being tasked to gather information on their market in order for them to make necessary adjustments to their plans and other strategies. Customer businesses are very dynamic when it comes to choosing products for their company.It is important for the sales person to gather information on the current demand trend of their prospect company in order to make appropriate strategies and plans. The last but not the least is the allocation especially during the times of shortage. Sales person must have the ability to think on the ways by which he/she would allocate th e available stocks of the company.REFERENCES OLIVA, R. (2007) Business-to-Business Marketing Overview.SMITH, T. (2002) B2B Marketing? TUTOR2U. COM (2007) promotion Ã¢â¬â personal selling.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
In a country everybody should know how to read and write and how to count, so that everybody can help the society with a better capacity. Primary education is based mainly on reading, writing and arithmetic. This is the minimum education that one should get, specially in a poor country like India, where nothing more can be possibly done owing to paucity of funds. Advantages: The present age is the age of people. In most of the countries there are democratic form of Government. Democracy cannot be successful if the people are illiterate. Because illiterate persons cannot read the newspapers. They cannot read the political pamplets. So, they remain in dark about their countryÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs. People should have a least the primary education for their easy conduct in the society and for the success of democracy. Why it should be made compulsory: The poor people do not send their children to school for want of money. Some children work elsewhere to supplement their family-income. The farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s children help their parents in the field. So, they cannot come to school if it is not made compulsory. but it must be free education and children should get their books and slates from the Government. Most of the parents being poor, their children should be provided with free fooding and free clothing. Conclusion: It is the duty of every Government to make the primary education free and compulsory. The Government of India should work out this scheme with all sincerity, so that all the children of the entire country will come within the scheme. People should co-operate with the Government in this campaign. Students can help their local people to work out the primary education programme. During their holidays and vacations they should open camp-schools in their own localities and teach the local children in suitable hours.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
As basic users, security is one feature that most of us overlook when it comes to operating systems until it is too late. In this paper we will discuss the security flaws within the Windows Operating system, and then discuss countermeasures to fix the system flaw. We will first look at some known flaws in Windows 7 and Windows 8. An Information Security Engineer at Google had decided to reveal a flaw that affected two of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s newest operating systems that allowed attackers to obtain higher privileges on an unpatched computer. The vulnerability was caused due to an error within the Ã¢â¬Ëwin32k.sysÃ¢â¬â¢ when it processes certain objects and it can be exploited to cause a crash or perform arbitrary code with kernel privilege. A more recent flaw in Windows has been identified as the Zero-Day Vulnerability; the Microsoft Windows Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) package manager remote code execution vulnerability (CVE-2014-4114) permits attackers to embed OLE files fro m external locations. CVE-2014-4114 flaw can be exploited to download and install malware on to the targetÃ¢â¬â¢s computer. This vulnerability affects all versions of Windows to include; Windows Vista Service Pack 2, Windows 8.1 and Windows Server versions 2008 and 2012. The Microsoft technology allows rich data from one document to be embedded in another document or link to a document. The OLE is usually used for embedding locally stored content but this flaw allows the unprompted download and execution of external files. The attackers send the targeted individuals or corporations a spear-phishing email that contains a malicious PowerPoint (PPT) file attachment; this email is detected by Symantec as Trojan.Mdropper. The sent file contains two embedded OLE documents containing URLs. If the targeted individual opens the PPT file, the URLs are contacted and two files are downloaded which in turn will install the malware on the computer. When the malware is installed on the victimÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ computer, this creates a back door that allows the attackers to download and install other malware; the malware can a lso download updates for itself to include an information stealing component. Microsoft is advising customers that there is no patch currently available for this vulnerability; they have supplied a fixit tool that decreases the attacks. While the present exploits are using PowerPoint files to deliver the malware, given the type of flaw, they may start using different office files such as word documents or excel spreadsheets. The second zero-day vulnerability is CVE-2014-4113, which is a local elevation of privilege vulnerability; this flaw has been seen in attacks against Windows Server 2003/R2, 2008/R2, Windows 2000, Windows Vista and Windows XP SP3. This flaw cannot be used on its own to compromise a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s security. The attacker would need to gain access to a remote system running any of the above lists operating systems before they could execute code within the context of the Windows Kernel. (Ã¢â¬Å"Sandworm Windows Zero-Day Vulnerability Being Actively Exploited In Targeted AttacksÃ¢â¬ , 2014). MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s security advisory states the company is vigorously working to provide broader protections to their customers; the company states that the resolution of the issue may include providing a security update through a monthly patch update or providing an unscheduled security update. As stated above Microsoft issued a temporary fixit tool that can be applied to 32-64 bit versions of PowerPoint 2007, 2010 and 2013. This can be used until an official patch is released. Also another countermeasure to avoid downloading malware on to your operating system is not open any PowerPoint Presentations or documents from unknown parties, even mail from known addresses should be avoided unless you can confirm with the sender that the email was intentionally sent. Many emails are compromised because some individuals make their passwords to easy or they have downloaded spyware and the attacker gets that information and uses their email to send out their virus to other users. I have received emails from my mother when I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect them and I would inform her that her email had been hacked. Many are not aware that this has happened unless they are told, References: Google Engineer Finds Critical Windows 7 / 8 Security Flaw. (2001-2014). Retrieved from http://news.softpedia.com/news/Google-Engineer-Finds-Critical-Windows-7-8-Security-Flaw-355406.shtml Sandworm Windows zero-day vulnerability being actively exploited in targeted attacks. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/sandworm-windows-zero-day-vulnerability-being-actively-exploited-targeted-attacks
Friday, September 13, 2019
Making Choices about Exigency, Genre, and Readership - Essay Example Thinking about genre will enable the writer to consider the style and manner of writing. Considering about readership will compel the writer to engage with the subject being written and not just to write to comply to the requirements of an assignment. I have to admit that the only person I thought of in my previous writing classes is my teacher on how to satisfy him or her so I can get better grade. Writing for an ideal community of readers compels me to find ways to meet the expectations of those who are already interested in my topic and for them to consider my perspective, accept my explanations, arguments and proposals. Writing for a class is primarily motivated by compliance or as a response to the requirement of a class. This may or may not engage the writer as he or she writes the paper. Writing for Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ readers on the other hand, engages the writer about the subject being written in order to convince its real readers to adopt his or her point of view or be convince with the persuasion of the
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Was Hitler's decision to attack the Soviet Union his greatest military failure - Essay Example Thus Operation Barbarossa would be the catalyst that resulted in the collapse of the Third Reich.6 Based on these assessments it is therefore argued that HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s attack on the Soviet Union was its greatest military failure. This paper intends to illustrate this hypothesis by first evaluating HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy and secondly Operation Barbarossa. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy will be evaluated first as a means of tying it to the strategies, planning and execution of Operation Barbarossa. Thirdly, this paper will conduct an analysis of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s attack on the Soviet Union with the objective of determining how HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s attack on the Soviet Union ties in with his strategies toward the Allied powers during the Second World War. The third part of this paper will analyse what aspects of Operation Barbarossa contributed to its greatest failure. ... Even so, Weinberg informs that Hitler: Had a clearly formulated set of ideas on major issues of foreign policy, and these ideas were intimately interwoven with his concepts of domestic affairs.8 These clear ideas were founded on the doctrine of race and were predicated on the concept that manÃ¢â¬â¢s history is more specifically understood by reference to race. More specifically, manÃ¢â¬â¢s history is tied to the Ã¢â¬Å"racial components of different societiesÃ¢â¬ .9 Prior to taking office, HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine of race underpinnings and its characterization of his foreign policies were obvious in his speeches and writings. For Hitler, Germany had not lost the First World War. Instead, Germany had been backstabbed by Jews those who supported Jews. Jews and their supporters not only had tremendous influence in Germany but also garnered strength from foreign powers whose victory during the First World War had facilitated the backstabbing.10 It therefore followed that any effect ive foreign policy was required to facilitate domestic reconfiguration. To this end, according to Weinberg, Ã¢â¬Å"a nationally conscious group must assume powerÃ¢â¬ and must Ã¢â¬Å"ruthlessly displace whatever steps toward democratic governmentÃ¢â¬ that had already occurred in Germany and Ã¢â¬Å"rearm to provide the tools of an aggressive foreign policyÃ¢â¬ .11 What this meant for Hitler was the formulation of a policy that would require a direct confrontation with France, GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s perpetual enemy. This policy might also require a coalition with Italy who equally objected to France acquiring European hegemony. Other strategies included annexing Austria and other yet to be identified territories under a Ã¢â¬Å"Greater GermanyÃ¢â¬ .12 The
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Development Of African Historiography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 2
Development Of African Historiography - Essay Example The historians, mostly hailing from European nations, who relied on material and tangible discoveries as the only sources of information about the early life of any culture, classified the world into Ã¢â¬Å"civilizationsÃ¢â¬ based on an inappropriate definition of the term referring only to societies that left evidences of complex social and cultural systems with a centralized authority that controlled labor, wealth, military forces and commissioned the construction of cities and towns and other public buildings, as well as works of Ã¢â¬ËmonumentalÃ¢â¬â¢ art. (Ehret)This approach led to a distinction between different cultures around the world on the basis of intelligence that was measured mostly from written texts that could be translated and could provide a vision into the life of the early people, dismissing the rest of the world as Ã¢â¬ËuncivilizedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËunintelligentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ehret) Such attitudes assisted the slave traders in undermining the humanity of the African people, looking down upon their traditional values as Ã¢â¬ËprimitiveÃ¢â¬â¢, their ethnic communities as Ã¢â¬ËtribesÃ¢â¬â¢, their nation as a Ã¢â¬ËraceÃ¢â¬â¢. (Ehret 4-9)These terms though originally meaning nothing degrading have come to be associated with ideas denoting a distinction from what is considered to be ordinary and accepted in a Ã¢â¬ËcivilizedÃ¢â¬â¢ society and consequently such dismissals prevented the historians of that time to investigate events that accounted for African history. Thus the rich cultural life of a huge percentage of the population of the world has been left undiscovered due to the limiting beliefs and predetermined superiority of smaller class. Historians today, however, have understood the implications of such an error and have made efforts to develop unique research methodologies for investigating past events through mainly Oral Tradition and Archeology as well as other interesting sources such as genetics, linguistics, and botany.
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Topic Selection - Assignment Example The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the dangers of identity theft and how to prevent identity theft. The purpose of this topic is to illustrate the dangers of identity theft and how to prevent it. It will provide guidelines through which one can prevent identity theft and other crimes that are usually accompanied / associated with identity theft. It may be difficult to prevent this crime completely, but there are ways to contribute to its reduction. Identity theft can go for several days or even months unnoticed. This is due to the advancing of technology and skills. Victims of identity theft can be greatly affected financially, emotionally and sometimes physically. This is because once one is able to impersonate his victim, they can do whatever they want to them. Cases of identity theft need to be dealt with to prevent this stress. Thieves have discovered a way of accessing their victimÃ¢â¬â¢s emails and details which enable them to monitor their daily routine. In 2010, an article Ã¢â¬Å"Cyber Crime Made Easy" illustrated and brought out clearly how hackers used malicious software to access their victims details. There are several types of identity fraud; the most common type of them is credit card fraud. This is a short term fraud as the thief will be recognized faster by the credit card issuing company even before the owner knows about it (Keene, 2009). The internet contains a wealth of information. This is because of its versatility as it is used as a tool in performing social and economic activities. It is for this reason that the internet has been found to play a major role as a root for identity theft as hackers use it to acquire their victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ personal information. In the past years, the rate of online shopping has been increasing. This has made it even easier for hackers to obtain peoples personal information such as; financial records, social security numbers, credit card numbers and
The Principles of Scientific Management - Essay Example However, the area of HRM is exceptionally complex and multilateral: there are many different theories and views on the nature, methods, and techniques of management described in the abundant organizational literature. Ã Since the emergence of organizational science in the late 19th - early 20th century, the scholars have been sharing two dominant views on organizational culture. Apologists of one paradigm led by Frederick Taylor and Harrington Emerson (School of Scientific Management) believed that organizational culture was just one of the tools to ensure greater control over employees. Representatives of another approach such as Elton Mayo, Abraham Maslow, and Douglas McGregor (Human relations school) postulated that organizational culture was supposed to develop and motivate the employees without excessively rigid control (Schultz & Shultz 2002). Although each of these major paradigms has contributed significantly to the development of contemporary HRM, they rely upon entirely different principles and assumptions. Ã The process of industrialization and sophistication of businesses that occurred during the last decade of the 19th century seriously changed the traditional managerial practices. Increasing the efficiency of labor became the key priority within the system of company-employee relationship. The concept of scientific management described by Frederick Taylor was the first systematic approach designed specifically to improve the labor efficiency of employees within the new system of work relationships (Taylor 1911). Taylor strongly believed that organizational culture was one of the most effective instruments to influence the employees and improve their performance and listed the most important elements of the ideal organizational culture. Ã Taylor believed that the most effective approach to managing human resources should not be different from the approach used to manage other elements of the production process. Consequently, the Taylorian model of management relied on the assumption that the average employee was lazy, ignorant, passive, and lacked the motivation to perform effectively.
Monday, September 9, 2019
The Emerald Forest - Essay Example This cleaning of forests angered the tribes living in the forests known as the Invisible people and The Fierce People (Ã¢â¬Å"The Emerald ForestÃ¢â¬ ). The story gets its real essence when one-day Markhem takes his family for a tour of the forest and his son Tommy gets abducted by the Invisible people (Ã¢â¬Å"The Emerald ForestÃ¢â¬ ). The invisible people are environmental friendly people, who are very close to nature considering it as their friend and living happily in their forest in their own community unless Markhem comes to destroy their peace and take away their home (Ã¢â¬Å"The Emerald ForestÃ¢â¬ ). They kidnap his son because they assume that Westerners or termites as they call them are the destroyers of the world, but the child is innocent and so should not live with these murderers. Tommy is adopted by the chief of the tribe Wanadi who loves and brings him up as his son. Markhem searches a lot for Tommy but does not find him until after ten years when Tommy rescues hi m while fleeing for his life from the Fierce People (Ã¢â¬Å"The Emerald ForestÃ¢â¬ ). Markhem asks Tommy to return to him and his world but Tommy refuses and says that now his world is this forest and his people are his tribe. Markhem even asks their chief Wanadi, who is the authority of the Invisible People to convince Tommy to return but Wanadi says that Ã¢â¬Å"If I tell a man to do what he does not want to do, I may no longer be the chief.Ã¢â¬ Meaning that even being the authority there he has no right to force people to do something they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to do.... The chief does not give any command or order to his people, not even his son to follow, rather he understands that it is the basic right of every human being to follow his will and wish (Ã¢â¬Å"ProyectÃ¢â¬ ). However in the modern western world, lives of humans are ruled by orders and commandments given sometimes by their parents, sometimes by teachers, later by their employees, and overall by the governments, policemen etc (Ã¢â¬Å"ProyectÃ¢â¬ ). It was not just that there was a wide gap between the authority structures of these two societies but their entire life style, culture, norms, traditions etc all were opposite. The people of the traditional societies still use artillery, spears and arrows to fight and they walk to cover long distances (Ã¢â¬Å"The Emerald ForestÃ¢â¬ ). The use of technology is very limited or almost nonexistent in their lives as they are closer to nature and lives together. In contrast to them, modern western society uses technology to a large extent (Ã ¢â¬Å"The Emerald ForestÃ¢â¬ ). There are modern methods of fighting like machine guns and bombs, aero planes, railways cars etc to travel to far away distances in just hours, large machines are used for construction and to cut off forests. This advancement in technology has both its benefits and costs (Ã¢â¬Å"The Emerald ForestÃ¢â¬ ). With technology comes the easiness to do things and time gets saved in travelling. As Wanadi says to Markhem Ã¢â¬Å"When I was a boy, the edges of the world was very far away, but it comes closer each year.Ã¢â¬ However with benefits comes the cost too. As more vehicles are produced, so have the pollution from air, land and water increased as well (Ã¢â¬Å"The Emerald ForestÃ¢â¬ ). This pollution is destroying our respiratory system by going inside us
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Youth crime - Essay Example Exaggeration of media stories and incidences often leave both the reporters and the public confused, uneasy and suspicious. Though media entities work hard to generate interest among its viewers and audiences, it is important that they remain focused and disseminate true stories and incidents to the members of the society. Criminal activities associated with young people (17 years and below) include arson, breach of bail, breach of conditional discharge, and breach of statutory order, criminal damage, death or injury by reckless driving, domestic burglary, drug offences, fraud & forgery, motoring offences Non-domestic burglary, public order, racial aggravated offences, robbery , sexual offences, theft and handling , vehicle theft and violence against person. It is not easy for an average person to know whether the media is exaggerating incidences or not. However, exaggeration of media content can be identified through Stanley CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s five pointers and by comparing official sta tistics from government agencies to information contained in media reports. Establishing whether youth crimes are spiraling out of control as reported by the media in the United Kingdom Establishing exaggeration of media reports on youth crimes can be difficult for an average person. ... These five pointers based on moral panic concept would be used to establish whether it is true that youth crime is spiraling out of control in the United Kingdom as portrayed by the media. First, it is good to establish whether the media has inflated youth crime rates (statistics). The media has given prominence to youth crime rates over other equally important happenings in Britain. Though youth crimes are only reported as they happen and do not run longer as compared to other stories, they are put as prominent information. Most media in the United Kingdom exaggerates criminal offences perpetuated by young people by putting youth crimes incidences in more prominent parts of the newspaper or the newscasts. In addition, some media uses age to show the magnitude and scope of crime perpetrators. Four year old children were suspected to be involved with arson, assault, burglary and possessing offensive weapons. Reporting children as perpetrators is hard to believe or imagine. Pickard (20 08) claimed that Britain have experienced alarming increases in publicized knife crimes since 2008. The knife crime stories about latest victims and perpetrators are placed in front pages of the newspapers and headlines in the newscasts. The media constantly remind members of the society on imminent danger they face each day as they leave their houses as young people embrace knives as latest fashion accessory. Figure 1 is a graph showing the number of young people who got involved in criminal offences between the years 2003 to 2010. According to the graph below, the number of young people who got involved in criminal offences increased steadily from 2003 to 2006. After 2006, the number of young people who
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Generalization, Miniaturization and the case of Italo Calvino - Essay Example With the nexus of focus on Valdrada concentric upon the Ã¢â¬Å"eyesÃ¢â¬ , Calvino goes to great lengths to illustrate just what Marco Polo Ã¢â¬Å"sawÃ¢â¬ within the place and how he understood/interpreted this. Whereas Marco Polo was of a relatively high social class and his level of education was above that of the average individual during Renaissance Italy, Calvino illustrates that he was not inclined to attempt to use the scientific method; instead, Polo relates complex and instrinsicly nuanced facets of Valdrada in a matter of fact way. This matter of fact detail and the pedagogical nature in which he discusses these aspects lends the reader to engage with these facets of Valdrada as nothing short of fact. Yet, by comparing the quote of Susan Stewart, provided in the introduction, the reader is cautioned as to the ramifications of not objectively considering what details might be overlooked within such a cursory approach. The visual representation that is reflected within CalvinoÃ¢â¬â¢s section on Valdrada denotes, among many other things, the following: Ã¢â¬Å"The ancients built Valdrada on the shores of a lake, with houses all verandas one above the other, and high streets whose railed parapets look out over the water. Thus the traveler, arriving, sees two cities: one erect above the lake, and the other reflected, upside downÃ¢â¬ (Calvino 123). Within this literary statement of fact, the reader is represented with a picturesque landscape that can easily be miniaturized to reflect a greater understanding for the region and people in question.
Friday, September 6, 2019
Of Mice and Men Essay John Steinbeck, the American author of this emotional novel, was bought up in Salinas. His family owned a lot of land, therefore meaning he was quite rich. He went to university to study writing and left without a degree as he dropped out half way through the course. However he took up work as a labourer and a journalist. I noticed how Steinbecks background really inspired him to write a book like Of Mice and Men. It shows how he wants to let out all his emotions as a child into this book. He, George and Lennie have a lot in common. The American Dream is belief in the freedom that allows all citizens and residents of the United States to achieve their goals in life through hard work. Everyone has a dream that they want to achieve somewhere in their lifetime. There are two different types of The American Dream. The first is the entitlement of land- freedom, just like George and Lennies dream. The other is luck, fame and money just like Curleys wifes dream in the book. In 1929 the Wall Street Crash was introduced which led to on going recession. This also led to failed businesses, harsh poverty and long term unemployment. At this point men couldnt afford to have families so therefore men travelled alone just like George and Lennie. There was no heath care so the only hope left was dreams. The book is called Of Mice and Men but is that what it has always been called? The actual title was Something that happened. This suggests something that you as the reader were not involved in. Steinbeck also wrote this book as a detached narrator, so he as well was not involved in the action. He began writing it in early 1936 and it was published in 1937. The book was immediately successful. Even now this book shows so much meaning of how The American Dream was so important to the people in the 1930s. This was because dreams were the only thing American people had to depend on. Dreams can take you away from the real world. A dream can sometimes make a person be very selfish. Sometimes you need to come away from your dream and think about others. Throughout the first chapter of Of Mice and Men is just setting the scene. The first time we saw George and Lennie was in an open pool. They soon find a bunk house with lots of other men to share with. The ranch where both men worked was in Salinas, where Steinbeck himself was brought up. Steinbeck was showing that the settings were slowly closing in so you feel more isolated. Steinbeck produces two very different characters which are most like him. That is the reason why both characters have such a major roll to play. George and Lennie have the most unique bond throughout Of Mice and Men. Both have gone though very hard times with Lennie being retarded and George having to keep a constant eye on him and not being able to pursue his dream alone. We start to get an image that Lennie has a disability in the early stages of the book, just the way he behaves. Lennie dipped his whole head under, hat and all. Look George. Look what I done. This shows us that Lennie has a child-like mind and wants to impress and please George. It is very enigmatic that two men are travelling together, alone. However this was very typical to do this at the time because of societys pressure. What is very astonishing about Lennie and George is that they are both very different from each other. Lennie is a big man who has a disability because he got hit by a horse when he was younger. George is a complete contrast to Lennie as he is a small man always aware of what is going on around him and conscious of what is happening. George and Lennie both have a dream but are not necessarily the same. Steinbeck represents this by describing in such detail what they want together. We could live offa the fatta the lan. The irony is about the countryside they are in, it is rich. They are living of the bounty of nature. Money and family are not mentioned in the dream. It provides them with everything they need. We could have a few pigs. When the fruit come in we could can it. Every Sunday wed kill a chicken or a rabbit. Steinbeck uses we a lot in the dream. It shows that the dreamed is shared between Lennie and George. The repetition emphasises this. Steinbeck creates the dream mainly by using dialogue. By having George and Lennie discuss their dream together allows the reader to have a sense that they have been planning this dream together and not alone. George and Lennies interpretation of the dream is slightly different. Lennie wants to tend the rabbits as he likes feeling soft things. George also has a dream of his own. He could get a job, eat at any place he likes, stay in a hotel, and get a gallon of whisky. However Lennie is stopping him from doing all of this. George needs Lennie and Lennie needs George. All George wants is love and affection and he knows he cant get that, because after everything that has gone on, it is hard. George is still with Lennie because Lennie himself is a big man so he can protect George from other people. Lennie is stopping George from achieving many dreams, but the reason why George is still with him is because Lennie is the only person George has got. George has no family nor does he have friends. He only has Lennie. George has a short temper and lashes out at Lennie very often verbally. Lennie is a fragile man who doesnt like seeing his comrade like this. You can tell that they both care about each other an awful lot. Another way that Steinbeck represents the American Dream is how Candy lost his companion. Candy had a lot of dreams when his dog was alive. This is because the dog had been through everything with him, but now that he and his dog was getting old there was only one thing left for Carlson to do. A shot sounded. Candys dream had just been killed. The second that bullet hit that dog, Candys dreams were shattered. His dog was a part of Candys dreams A dream could be in the in the past or the future. In Candys case it was all in the past. His dog had been through everything with him. This is a similarity between George and Lennie who have also been through everything with each other. Candy knows that nobody could ever replace his dog. Slim offers him any of the pups but Candy just remained silent. Candy feels that he cant achieve anything without his dog anymore. That is why he he lays in his bed silent for a long time. He treats the dog like a human, as part of his family, someone really close. That is what makes Candy be so silent for a long period of time. As Candy lays there silent on his bed he overhears George and Lennie talking about their dream. Again Steinbeck reveals the dream by dialogue. They talk about how one day they are going to get out of the ranch and live offa the fatta the lan. As Candy listens to their dream in such detail he asks if he can be a part of it. An old dream has ended but a new one is just beginning. Dreams are pacific to an individual however sometimes a dream could be a part of a team. This is exactly what Candy wants to do with George and Lennie. He wants to share their dream and be a part of it. After all shared dreams are much stronger than individual ones. Steinbeck now introduces and individual character that defines him from the rest of the ranchers. Crooks is the only black man on the ranch therefore he is excluded from society. He is separated by being pushed into a disassociated room. He is not allowed to socialise with the other ranchers because of his race. In the 1930s Americans were against anyone who were coloured. These people would not get treated fairly and would usually get beaten up just for the colour of their skin. Crooks father did not want him socialising with white people because he knew that they will abuse him. The American Dream is about equality of all men. This is where Crooks rights come in. The irony here is that segregation leads to a better life. A very unusual thing about Crooks is that he is the only one who can read; hence conveying that he is very well educated. We know that Crooks has already had his dream just by the way in which he speaks to Lennie. Crooks and Lennie both have a disability. Although he feels appreciated that Lennie is around him, Crooks speaks in a very negative manner about Lennies dream. An never a God damn one of em ever gets it. Crooks is contradicting to Lennie that dreams can never be achieved. However if you dont try to achieve your dream, it will never come true. Crooks suddenly changes his mind about the dream and hesitates as he asks Lennie if he could be a part of the dream too. Crooks dream is about having those long dark nights alone change by having people talk to him and communicate with him. His dream is all about regaining sense of belonging with others. Crooks heart wants the dream but his mind is not allowing him achieve it because his background has knocked his courage. We know from the American Dream, his experiences in the past have made him so brittle and angry. However Crooks can be very venerable to people that are more powerful than him, such as Curleys wife. Steinbeck introduces another unique character into Of Mice and Men. Curleys wife is the only girl on the ranch therefore she is also excluded from society. Even though she is more powerful than Crooks, she is not all that different from him. Both are very lonely and want someone to talk to. Both are at a disadvantage, Crooks with his race and Curleys wife with her gender. Curleys wife does not know what to do in life. We know her dream was to be an actress, but was crushed by her very own mother. Now her dream is to be more grown up. She dresses like an adult with make-up, her hair done up and a stylish dress. However she is still described by Steinbeck as a girl. A girl was standing there. She wants to be respected from the men all around her. Being the only woman in the ranch can be intimidating. In the 1930s woman were less valued than men. They had fewer rights. The reason why she married Curley is to get some attention and be more respected because he was the ranchers son. Curleys wife is a mercenary; she married him for his money and as a rebound for her loss as an actress. Curley is very much respected by all the men so Curleys wife married him so all the men could look up to her just as they do to Curley. Curleys wife unexpectedly lets her true feelings out to Lennie. I dont like Curley. He aint a nice fella. This shows that she is using him but at the same time Curley is using his wife. However Curleys wife moved to the countryside to get a better life but after two weeks she found out that she had made a mistake. She already hasnt got a good reputation. All the men think she is a bit of a tart. Two weeks married, and got the eye. This shows that she hasnt been married to Curley for a short period of time and yet she is being judged already just the by the way she looks and dresses. Curley says he keepin that hand soft for his wife. We instantly know that Curley himself is an abuser. We know this because his dream was to become a boxer. Having not achieved this dream he converts it into abusing women. Curleys wife is a lot more than what she looks. There is always a person inside who has a dream. The death of Curleys wife is very significant of Steinbecks treatment of the theme of the American Dream. We know this because Lennie was the one who shook her, shook her so much that he broke her neck, and killed her. Lennies character is very timid, so expectedly her runs away, trying to hide from society. We as the reader know Lennies dreams are going to come to an end, but we dont know how. That is how Steinbeck creates the atmosphere which makes the reader what to carry on. Lennie was the one who killed Curleys wifes dreams, so now Curley is going to kill his. When Lennie dies, the whole dream dies. We know that both Lennie and George do not have a family. They have each other instead. They care about one another which makes them so unique. I want you to stay with me here. This shows that even know Lennie thinks George is going to give him hell, he isnt. He cares about Lennie and he knows that if he doesnt kill Lennie himself now that the other ranch men will kill him, brutally. George slowly but in a clever way kills Lennie. He has made the choice of how Lennie is going to die. This is a complete contrast of how Candys dog died. George keeps the American Dream alive so it is the last thing that Lennie remembers. Steinbeck describes the dream in such detail so we can actually picture it ourselves. Lennie remembers that one day they could live offa the fatta the lan. Lennie has no idea of what George is building up to do. However we as readers know what is going to happen. Steinbeck builds up suspense of how George gradually kills Lennie. George describes how they are going to live with pigs and chickens. This is typical of the American Dream, a chance to get rich and have land. However that dream was collapsing all around them as they live in a poor barn house where all the men share the same room. Lennie is very reluctant about why George has forgiven him. Lennie says that he might as well just go away to show that after George said if I was alone I could live so easy. Lennie thinks by doing this it would make George happy. We know that if George kills Lennie, he could no longer for fill his dreams without his companion. Gradually Lennie gets very excited about their dream. Lets get that place now. That is when George pulls the trigger and lets Lennie go, for good. George made this choice of killing his best friend. Of what looks horrific, he is actually doing Lennie a massive favour. He was going to be killed anyway so why not do it with a blissful memory rather than a bloody one.